) versus the more intangible yet equally important areas, such as reputational image, establishing of vision, developing relationships and networks, and delivery of mission. It is in the latter area that leadership skills, qualities, characteristics, and traits in the traditional sense of leadership (i
Ian O’Boyle, David Shilbury and Lesley Ferkins
Effective leadership in sport at the elite level can make the difference between success and failure. However, although the importance of leadership is acknowledged there is little published evidence regarding how the required skills could or should be developed. The current case study reports the implementation of a leadership development program with elite professional cricketers. The intervention itself was focused at three levels: (a) captaincy development, (b) leadership skill development, and (c) personal growth and leadership development. Program effectiveness was determined through the feedback provided by the individual players on the program, the reflections of the sport psychology consultant, and feedback from the professional staff. Evaluation and reflection of the program suggest that a formal development program can be both beneficial and impactful in enhancing the leadership capabilities of elite players.
The purpose of this investigation was to assess the perceptions of intercollegiate athletics conference commissioners regarding skills associated with management and leadership. A descriptive survey design was used to collect the data. The study showed that commissioners (N = 75) of NCAA Division I, II, and III conferences rated skills associated with management higher than those associated with leadership (f[l,69] = 5.109, p = .0001). Based on a 5-point Likert scale, the survey concluded: (a) Overall mean rates for management (M = 3.61, SD = .680) were higher than for leadership (M = 3.28, SD = .636), and (b) mean rates for both management and leadership were above average (M = 3.00). Serendipitously, the skills of management and leadership were discovered to be associated with brain hemisphere and whole brain thinking. The investigation's findings may serve as a guide for further research on management and leadership of intercollegiate athletic administrators.
Kim C. Graber, Wojtek Chodzko-Zajko, Jamie A. O’Connor and Jenny M. Linker
Civic engagement and service learning opportunities provide students with unique real-world experiences they are unable to acquire in a traditional in-class setting. Students develop a commitment to the community in which they live, exposure to other populations, leadership abilities, skills to work successfully within a team, and a chance to learn from failure. The Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching has recognized the importance of such opportunities and has added the Community Engagement Classification to the restructured Carnegie Classifications of Institutions of Higher Education. The purpose of this paper is to provide a synthesis of the literature that addresses civic engagement and service learning opportunities and to describe a university class that was designed to provide undergraduate students with a capstone service learning experience promoting wellness for older adults in the community. Data that were collected to evaluate the success of the class are also described.
Frederik Ehlen, Jess C. Dixon and Todd M. Loughead
developed some of my brand, market research, sales, general management, and financial management skills. I became President of the Hostess Foods division at the age of 35, where I strengthened my leadership skills, and then went on to become President and CEO of Pillsbury Canada. Throughout those 29 years
NASPE has developed national standards for coaches with Standard 8 focusing on providing athletes with responsibility and leadership opportunities as they mature. Standard 8 states that coaches should engage athletes in opportunities that nurture leadership and teamwork, which can be learned on the field and exhibited in life. It further states that sports provide an atmosphere for trial and error through practice and competition. Much is expected of team leaders; however, few of them are ever formally taught the leadership skills they need to perform effectively. Like physical skills, leadership skills must be systematically taught, developed, and practiced. Through a structured leadership program, some of the trial and error can be eliminated. High school cross country athletes (N=8) participated in an eight-week structured leadership program. The program met once a week, with each athlete leading a weekly session and the coach serving as a moderator. The topics addressed were: understanding the rewards, risks and responsibilities of leadership, leading by example, and vocal leadership. The athletes also spent five hours performing a community leadership service project and attended a leadership lecture presented by a national expert. There was a significant improvement between a pre and post self-rated Team Leadership Evaluation survey (Janssen, 2007). The athletes felt the program was effective, as they were able to develop insights and leadership skills needed to be more effective leaders.
Jennifer Y. Mak and Chong Kim
Leadership development is important for society, and participating in athletics and student organizations has provided opportunities for young adults to develop and display leadership qualities (Dobosz & Beaty, 1999; Knoppers, 2011; Todd & Kent, 2004; Williams, Roberts, & Bosselman, 2011). The empirical research examining the leadership development through athletics and student organizations involvement has, unfortunately, been limited. Thus, the purpose of this study was to identify and investigate the relationship among gender, athletic involvement, and student organization involvement in relation to transformational leadership skills. Stratified random sampling and the Salant and Dillman (1994) survey methodology procedure were adopted for data collection. Data were collected from 992 college students (493 females and 495 males) in a Mid-Atlantic university. The Transformational Leadership Scale (Hellriegel & Slocum, 2004) was used as the instrument to measure the variables. Descriptive statistics and factorial ANOVA were used for data analysis. Results showed significant differences existed among gender, athletic involvement, and student organization involvement in relation to transformational leadership skills. Females, athletes, and student officers received significantly higher scores than males, nonathletes and nonstudent officers in transformational leadership.
Teresa B. Carlson and Peter A. Hastie
This paper examines student participation in units of sport education from the perspective of those students’ social agenda. Using a combination of fieldnotes, interview, and videotape data, four major themes emerged: (a) a change in the way students socialized during class (with a particular emphasis on the development of teamwork and cooperation), (b) a change in the opportunities for personal and social development (including leadership skills and cooperation), (c) a change in the nature of competition (where winning became more important and led to greater student effort), and (d) a change in how students viewed their learning within their physical education class. While in regular physical education contexts, the student social system often conflicts with the teacher’s agenda, in this study, data suggested that because students were placed in both instructional and managerial leadership roles, these typically teacher-driven task systems became an integral part of the student social system.
By virtue of their formal role in sport organizations, sport administrators are responsible for empowering subordinates to establish and achieve goals. The extent of their leadership skills will largely dictate the outcome of their actions with subordinates. After nearly a century of research on leadership, the question still remains as to what makes an effective leader. There are no absolute truths and no general panaceas about effective managerial leadership. However, a careful review of the literature reveals that a lot more is known about this topic than is usually acknowledged. The purpose of this article is to (a) express a perspective regarding leadership, (b) draw lessons from the leadership literature, (c) gain insights from research about leadership effectiveness, and (d) infer from this literature prescriptions for practicing sport administrators. The article reviews the research literature that pertains to (a) leadership influence and power, (b) leadership traits and skills, (c) leadership behaviors, (d) situational leadership, and (e) charismatic and transformational leadership.
Jennifer E. Bruening, Rachel M. Madsen, Justin M. Evanovich and Rhema D. Fuller
Service learning and civic engagement have taken on both renewed and increased importance in sport management (Chalip, 2006; Frisby, 2005; Inglis, 2007). The following manuscript represents data collected from 10 offerings of a Sport Management Service Learning course. Ninety-one of the 131 students consented to the use of selected journals, online discussions, and group papers. Analysis was organized around the following a priori themes and subthemes that emerged from the literature: discovery (the increased knowledge of different cultures, reduction of negative stereotypes, and increased self knowledge), integration (the reward of helping others, feeling like you can make a difference, working with others, and connecting to the community), and application (leadership skills and the emotional power of service learning helps students connect intellectually with coursework) (Boyer, 1990; Eyler & Giles, 1999). Subthemes for discovery also emerged from the data and included: knowledge of classmates’ cultures, future plans and being viewed as an expert. A discussion of the findings and recommendations for future research on and application of service learning as a sport management pedagogy follows the results.