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Grant M. Tinsley and Brett S. Nickerson

skeletal muscle ( Pietrobelli et al., 1998 ), but are not of interest for traditional body composition monitoring. In addition, several investigations have indicated that the trunk region is most affected by recent food and fluid intake, and these effects are manifested as increased lean soft tissue (LST

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Alessandra Madia Mantovani, Manoel Carlos Spiguel de Lima, Luis Alberto Gobbo, Enio Ricardo Vaz Ronque, Marcelo Romanzini, Bruna Camilo Turi-Lynch, Jamile Sanches Codogno and Rômulo Araújo Fernandes

. In addition, lean soft tissue (kg) was assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, while the current physical activity level was estimated by a pedometer (SW200; Yamax Digi-Walker, Tokyo, Japan). The participant carried a pedometer for 7 consecutive days, worn laterally at the hip, which was

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Ricardo Ribeiro Agostinete, Santiago Maillane-Vanegas, Kyle R. Lynch, Bruna Turi-Lynch, Manuel J. Coelho-e-Silva, Eduardo Zapaterra Campos, Suziane Ungari Cayres and Romulo Araújo Fernandes

, to understand this complex phenomenon adequately, the use of robust mathematical models is required, instead of traditional methods, such as linear regression. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the mediating effect of lean soft tissue (LST) on the relationship between training load

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Igor H. Ito, Han C.G. Kemper, Ricardo R. Agostinete, Kyle R. Lynch, Diego G.D. Christofaro, Enio R. Ronque and Rômulo A. Fernandes

body segments.) Therefore, analysis including the WB seemed to be more appropriate for this study, which segmented BMD in spine, upper, and lower limbs ( 38 , 39 ). A dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scanner also estimated the lean soft tissue (LST, in kilograms), which was used as a covariate

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Élvio R. Gouveia, Bruna R. Gouveia, José A. Maia, Cameron. J. Blimkie and Duarte L. Freitas

The aims of this study were to describe age- and sex-related differences in total body skeletal muscle (TB-SM) mass and to determine the variance explained by physical activity (PA). This cross-sectional study included 401 males and 402 females, aged 60–79 years. TB-SM was determined by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and PA by Baecke questionnaire. Statistical analysis included t test, ANOVAs, Pearson correlations, and multiple regression analysis. TB-SM mass was higher in the youngest age group when compared with the oldest in males and females. Males had greater TB-SM values than females. PA made a significant and positive contribution to the variation in TB-SM, β = 0.071; p = .016. Sex, height, fat mass, and PA explained 77% of the variance in TB-SM. The oldest cohorts and females had lower TB-SM than the younger cohorts and males. This study suggests that PA exerts a significant role in the explanation of TB-SM.

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Nai-Hsin Meng, Chia-Ing Li, Chiu-Shong Liu, Wen-Yuan Lin, Chih-Hsueh Lin, Chin-Kai Chang, Tsai-Chung Li and Cheng-Chieh Lin

Objectives:

To compare muscle strength and physical performance among subjects with and without sarcopenia of different definitions.

Design:

A population-based cross-sectional study.

Participants:

857 community residents aged 65 years or older.

Methods:

Sarcopenia was defined according to the European Working Group of Sarcopenia in Older People consensus criteria. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry measured lean soft tissue mass. Sarcopenic participants with low height-adjusted or weight-adjusted skeletal muscle index (SMI) were classified as having h-sarcopenia or w-sarcopenia, respectively. Combined sarcopenia (c-sarcopenia) was defined as having either h- or w-sarcopenia. The participants underwent six physical performance tests: walking speed, timed up-and-go, six-minute walk, single-leg stance, timed chair stands, and flexibility test. The strength of five muscle groups was measured.

Results:

Participants with h-sarcopenia had lower weight, body mass index (BMI), fat mass, and absolute muscle strength (p ≤ .001); those with w-sarcopenia had higher weight, BMI, fat mass (p < .001), and low relative muscle strength (p ≤ .003). Participants with c-sarcopenia had poorer performance in all physical performance tests, whereas h-sarcopenia and w-sarcopenia were associated with poor performance in four tests.

Conclusion:

Subjects with h- and w-sarcopenia differ significantly in terms of obesity indicators. Combining height- and weight-adjusted SMIs can be a feasible method to define sarcopenia.

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Paulo Sugihara Junior, Alex S. Ribeiro, Hellen C.G. Nabuco, Rodrigo R. Fernandes, Crisieli M. Tomeleri, Paolo M. Cunha, Danielle Venturini, Décio S. Barbosa, Brad J. Schoenfeld and Edilson S. Cyrino

soft tissue) − (0.02 × age) + (0.61 × sex) + 0.97, where appendicular lean soft tissue was considered equivalent to the sum of lean soft tissue in both the right and left arms. Sex: female = 0 and male = 1. Both upper limb lean soft tissue and lower limb lean soft tissue (LLLST) determined by dual

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Error of DXA Lean Soft Tissue Estimates From Nonfasted Assessments Grant M. Tinsley * Brett S. Nickerson * 1 05 2019 29 3 309 314 10.1123/ijsnem.2018-0132 ijsnem.2018-0132 Energy Deficiency During Cold Weather Mountain Training in NSW SEAL Qualification Students Kim Beals * Katherine A

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João Pedro Nunes, Alex S. Ribeiro, Analiza M. Silva, Brad J. Schoenfeld, Leandro dos Santos, Paolo M. Cunha, Matheus A. Nascimento, Crisieli M. Tomeleri, Hellen C.G. Nabuco, Melissa Antunes, Letícia T. Cyrino and Edilson S. Cyrino

of 16 weeks, where the first 2 weeks (1–2) and last 2 weeks (15–16) were used for measurements pre- and postintervention. Anthropometric measures (body mass and height); one-repetition maximum (1RM) tests in chest press (CP), knee extension (KE), and preacher curl (PC); assessment of lean soft tissue

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Kyle R. Lynch, Michael Fredericson, Bruna Turi-Lynch, Ricardo R. Agostinete, Igor H. Ito, Rafael Luiz-de-Marco, Mario A. Rodrigues-Junior and Rômulo A. Fernandes

points of analysis (baseline and follow-up), whole-body measurements of body fat (in percentage), lean soft tissue mass (LST, in kilograms) and BMD (in grams per square centimeter) were assessed using a dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scanner (Lunar DPX-NT; General Electric Healthcare, Little Chalfont