The purpose of this study was to examine the use of the Leisure Activities Blank (McKechnie, 1975) with males who had sustained spinal cord injuries. It was hypothesized that after treatment and time for adjustment, persons with spinal cord injuries would have higher scores on the Leisure Activities Blank (LAB) than they would within 3 months of hospitalization. Also, the male profile derived from persons with spinal cord injuries was compared with the normative male profile established by McKechnie (1975). The t-tests between means of pretest and posttest scores on the Future categories (male profile) of the LAB revealed no significant differences. However, significant differences (p < .01) were found between the nondisabled and disabled groups in 6 of the 8 categories on the Future LAB. No differences were found between the two disability groups (paraplegics and quadriplegics) on the Leisure Activities Blank.
Frank M. Howell and James A. McKenzie
There is a significant investment by schools and local communities in the athletic programs offered by secondary schools. A growing issue is, to what extent does the functioning of these sports programs coincide with the formal academic goals of the school? Using a structural equations model, we examine one theme within this major issue by estimating the effect of high school sports participation on sport and leisure activity later in adulthood. Further investigated is the process by which these effects are played out over the transition from adolescence to adulthood, as well as gender differences in the pattern of effects. Using the EEO panel of 1955 high school sophomores reinterviewed in 1970, we find that varsity and nonvarsity sports participation in high school increases adult sports involvement. However, whereas high school sports participation does not retard reading or “high-status” leisure pursuits in adulthood, curriculum track placement during high school does enhance these activities later in life. Track effects were also largely independent of completed school level. Finally, gender variations in the model were present but not uniformly so and largely appear to make sport participation and tracking effects significant only among men.
Y.J. Huang, Stephen H.S. Wong and Jo Salmon
This study aimed to examine the reliability and validity of the modified Children’s Leisure Activities Study Survey (CLASS) Chinese-version questionnaire in assessing physical activity among Hong Kong Chinese Children. Test-retest reliability was examined in 84 boys and 136 girls aged 9–12 years by comparing data from two administrations of the survey conducted one week apart. Validity was determined by comparing data from the second administration with accelerometer estimates. The results suggested that the questionnaire provided reliable and valid estimates in overall physical activity patterns in Hong Kong Chinese children. However, substantial overestimation was observed in vigorous activity.
Amanda Telford, Jo Salmon, Anna Timperio and David Crawford
The aim of this study was to describe the type, frequency, duration, and intensity of children’s physical activity and to examine differences by sex, age, and SES. Participants consisted of 5- to 6-year-old (n = 291) and 10- to 12-year-old (n = 919) children and their parents taking part in the Children’s Leisure Activities Study (CLASS). Parents completed proxy questionnaires about their child’s activity, and all children wore an accelerometer for 8 days. Accelerometry data showed that younger children accumulated approximately 4 hrs of moderate- to vigorous-intensity physical activity (MVPA) per day, and older children accumulated approximately 2 hrs per day. Fewer than three- quarters of 10- to 12-year-old boys and less than half of 10- to 12-year-old girls recorded 120 min of MVPA per day. Significant differences in the number of activities, as well as the type and frequency of activities performed, were observed by age and sex. The findings indicate that physical activities that appeal to older girls, such as lifestyle, noncompetitive activities, should be considered in the development of physical activity promotion strategies.
Amanda Telford, Jo Salmon, Damien Jolley and David Crawford
This study aimed to develop a reliable, valid, and feasible method for assessing physical activity among children ages 5–6 and 10–12 years. Test–retest reliability of a parental proxy questionnaire and a children’s self-report questionnaire was assessed in 280 children and parents. The criterion validity of the questionnaires was assessed using accelerometry. The proxy questionnaire provided a reliable measure of the type, frequency, and duration of children’s physical activity. Neither version of the questionnaire provided an accurate estimate of individual children’s physical activity. To assess the type, frequency, intensity, and duration of children’s activity, a combination of questionnaire and objective measures should be employed.
Kathleen Bachtel Watson, Shifan Dai, Prabasaj Paul, Susan A. Carlson, Dianna D. Carroll and Janet Fulton
Previous studies have examined participation in specific leisure-time physical activities (PA) among US adults. The purpose of this study was to identify specific activities that contribute substantially to total volume of leisure-time PA in US adults.
Proportion of total volume of leisure-time PA moderate-equivalent minutes attributable to 9 specific types of activities was estimated using self-reported data from 21,685 adult participants (≥ 18 years) in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999–2006.
Overall, walking (28%), sports (22%), and dancing (9%) contributed most to PA volume. Attributable proportion was higher among men than women for sports (30% vs. 11%) and higher among women than men for walking (36% vs. 23%), dancing (16% vs. 4%), and conditioning exercises (10% vs. 5%). The proportion was lower for walking, but higher for sports, among active adults than those insufficiently active and increased with age for walking. Compared with other racial/ethnic groups, the proportion was lower for sports among non-Hispanic white men and for dancing among non-Hispanic white women.
Walking, sports, and dance account for the most activity time among US adults overall, yet some demographic variations exist. Strategies for PA promotion should be tailored to differences across population subgroups.
Nicola W. Burton, Gavin Turrell, Brian Oldenburg and James F. Sallis
This study assessed the relative contributions of psychological, social, and environmental variables to walking, moderate- and vigorous-intensity physical activity.
A questionnaire was mailed to a random sample (57% response rate). Analyses used a backwards elimination logistic regression model, removing and replacing individual variables, and adjusting for age, gender, household composition, and education (N = 1827).
The sociodemographic and correlate variables collectively accounted for 43% of the variation in total activity, 26% of walking, 22% of moderate-intensity activity and 45% of vigorous-intensity activity (Nagelkerke R2). Individually, the correlates accounted for 0.0 to 4.0% of unique variation, with habit, efficacy, and support having higher values. Physical health, discouragement, competition, and time management contributed more to vigorous-intensity activity. Anticipated benefits of social interactions and weight management contributed more to moderate-intensity activity. Neighborhood aesthetics contributed more to walking.
Walking, moderate- and vigorous-intensity activity might be associated with different correlates.
Tuo-Yu Chen and Megan C. Janke
This study examines whether participation in gardening predicts reduced fall risk and performance on balance and gait-speed measures in older adults. Data on adults age 65 and older (N = 3,237) from the Health and Retirement Study and Consumption and Activities Mail Survey were analyzed. Participants who spent 1 hr or more gardening in the past week were defined as gardeners, resulting in a total of 1,585 gardeners and 1,652 nongardeners. Independent t tests, chi square, and regression analyses were conducted to examine the relationship between gardening and health outcomes. Findings indicate that gardeners reported significantly better balance and gait speed and had fewer chronic conditions and functional limitations than nongardeners. Significantly fewer gardeners than nongardeners reported a fall in the past 2 yr. The findings suggest that gardening may be a potential activity to incorporate into future fall-prevention programs.
Marc-Olivier St-Aubin, Philippe Chalaye, François-Pierre Counil and Sylvie Lafrenaye
Purpose: To evaluate exercise-induced analgesia (EIA) effectiveness in healthy adolescent males and to investigate possible associations between EIA and physiological/psychological variables. Methods: Twenty-eight healthy adolescent males (14–17 y) participated in this study. EIA was evaluated by comparing perceptions of heat pain stimulations before and after an increasing maximal load test on a cycle ergometer (VO2max). Results: Pain intensity for mild and strong heat pain stimulations significantly decreased following physical exercise (mild: EIA = 28.6%; 95% confidence interval, 0.9–1.9; P < .001 and strong: EIA = 11.3%; 95% confidence interval, 0.3–1.4; P = .002). The number of physical activity hours per week was positively correlated with the effectiveness of EIA for mild and strong pain intensity (r = .41, P = .03 and r = .43, P = .02, respectively). Conclusions: Intense physical exercise decreases perception of intensity of experimental heat pain in healthy adolescent males. The least physically active adolescents have reduced EIA effectiveness to experimental heat pain stimulations compared with physically active ones. Adolescents adopting an active lifestyle have more endogenous pain inhibition and could, therefore, potentially be less disposed to suffer from chronic pain later in life.
Rodrigo Siqueira Reis, Adriano Akira Ferreira Hino, Alex Antonio Florindo, Ciro Romélio Rodriguez Añez and Marlos Rodrigues Domingues
The purpose of this study was to analyze the relationship between adolescents’ physical activity practice and their perception about the environment of urban parks.
A school-based representative sample (n = 1,718; boys = 40.4%) of teenagers of Curitiba, Southern region of Brazil. A questionnaire was employed to identify perceived parks environmental features as well as physical activity practice in the parks (PAP), habitual physical activity (HPA) and demographics. The relationship between PAP and parks environments was analyzed through multivariate logistic regression controlling for age and socioeconomic status, HPA and parks distance.
After controlling for confounders PAP was associated with lack of space to be physically active, activities to choose from and equipments for both boys and girls, (odds ratio (OR)—ranging from 1.5 to 1.8). Among boys, having people of same age (OR = 1.5) and accessibility (OR = 2.0) showed association with PAP only in crude analysis. However, among girls, to be bulled or teased (OR = 1.4) and accessibility (OR = 1.7) were associated with PAP after confounding control.
The results showed that specific attributes in parks may be considered and offered to increase the likelihood of physical activity practice among adolescents in such locations.