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Dafna Merom, Heather Bowles and Adrian Bauman

Background:

Walking is the most prevalent form of leisure time physical activity (LTPA). Advances in measurement of walking depend on understanding sources of error in self report. We examined the effect of prompting “walking for exercise, recreation, and sport” (WERS) upon surveillance estimates of LTPA and assessed what types of walking were recalled when reporting LTPA generally and when WERS was prompted specifically.

Methods:

Data were collected by telephone survey from a random sample of 3,415 Australian adults (≥15yrs). Respondents were asked first to recall any type of LTPA they participated in (unprompted) and if walking was not mentioned, WERS was prompted. All walkers were asked to describe the type of walking they did. Open-ended responses were categorized according to physical activity measurement dimensions.

Results:

Forty three percent did not report WERS unless prompted to do so. The prevalence of meeting recommendations by all LTPA was reduced by 10% for both genders and across all age groups if not prompted to recall WERS. The interpretation of WERS was broad and included travel related walking and dog walking whether unprompted or prompted.

Conclusions:

Current challenges in walking surveillance include ensuring that both researchers and respondents understand WERS in a standardized manner.

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Tracie A. Barnett, Lise Gauvin, Cora L. Craig and Peter T. Katzmarzyk

Background:

We investigated the population trajectory of leisure time physical activity (LTPA) in adults age 18 to 60 y (n = 881), who were recruited in 1981 for the Canada Fitness Survey and followed-up through the Campbell’s Survey on Well-Being (1988) and the Physical Activity Longitudinal Study (2002/04).

Methods:

Data on involvement in LTPA were collected by questionnaire and used to estimate average daily energy expenditure (EE) (kcal · kg-1 · d-1) during leisure time. Growth trajectory modeling was used to describe the overall population trajectory of LTPA and the extent to which average trajectories varied between sub-groups defined by age, sex, and education.

Results:

The population trajectory of LTPA over time was modified by baseline age, but not by sex or by level of education. Disparities in LTPA related to sex and education persisted over two decades.

Conclusion:

This longitudinal investigation improves our understanding of the processes underlying patterns of LTPA in adults.

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Sylvia E. Badon, Alyson J. Littman, K.C. Gary Chan, Michelle A. Williams and Daniel A. Enquobahrie

Regular moderate/vigorous-intensity leisure-time physical activity is recommended before and during pregnancy. 1 However, only 23% of US pregnant women met the physical activity recommendations from 1999 to 2006. 2 Because of the low prevalence of high-intensity physical activity among pregnant

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Natalie Kružliaková, Paul A. Estabrooks, Wen You, Valisa Hedrick, Kathleen Porter, Michaela Kiernan and Jamie Zoellner

to interpret and some lack responsiveness (ie, the ability of an instrument to detect change over time in the construct measured). 25 The Stanford Leisure-Time Activity Categorical Item (L-Cat) and the Godin Leisure-Time Exercise Questionnaire (GLTEQ) demonstrate potential to overcome barriers

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Vera K. Tsenkova, Chioun Lee and Jennifer Morozink Boylan

domain is currently understudied. Differentiating among leisure-time physical activity (LTPA), occupational physical activity (OPA), and household physical activity (HPA) has offered evidence that domain matters. For example, the association between LTPA and glucoregulation is widely studied and

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Inácio Crochemore M. da Silva, Grégore I. Mielke, Andréa D. Bertoldi, Paulo Sergio Dourado Arrais, Vera Lucia Luiza, Sotero Serrate Mengue and Pedro C. Hallal

to be stable with prevalence of about 30%, according to the current guidelines (at least 150 min of moderate to vigorous intensity physical activity per week). 5 In terms of domains, although work-related physical activity tends to be decreasing, leisure-time physical activity seems to be slightly

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Carla L. Dellaserra, Noe C. Crespo, Michael Todd, Jennifer Huberty and Sonia Vega-López

acculturation levels and PA may also differ based on the specific PA domain being studied (eg, leisure, transportation, occupational). For example, studies have shown that greater acculturation level among MA adults have been associated with greater time spent in moderate to vigorous PA (MVPA), leisure-time

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Chia-Yuan Yu, Su-I Hou and Jonathan Miller

and a fear of falling. In addition, the absence of an exercise companion is a crucial barrier to leisure-time physical activity in older adults, 18 due to increased physical limitations. People with a spouse or companion are more likely to engage in leisure-time physical activity than those without

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Kindal A. Shores and Stephanie T. West

Background:

While considerable attention has been given to quantifying leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) among subpopulations, less attention has focused on the perception of the experience as leisure. The current study describes the prevalence of leisure-like experiences during LTPA among college students. We describe the social contexts and activity settings that contribute to participant enjoyment of LTPA since enjoyment has been linked to participation and adherence.

Methods:

Data were collected from 192 undergraduate students using a short questionnaire and 2 days of time diaries.

Results:

Respondents spent nearly equal time working, sleeping, and engaged in discretionary activities. Students reported 512 minutes of discretionary time each day, of which 77 minutes were spent in LTPA and 68% was classified by respondents as leisure. Active sports/ exercise (including aerobics and weight lifting), walking, and dancing at bars or parties were the most frequent LTPA choices. When LTPA involved the presence of human companions, activities were more likely to be perceived by respondents as leisure experiences. Physical activities undertaken at public parks, bars/dance clubs and private recreation centers were also more likely to be perceived as leisure experiences.

Conclusions:

Findings indicate that social instead of traditional exercise activities may motivate LTPA participation among college students. For example, results suggest the importance of dancing in this population.

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Francini Vilela Novais, Eduardo J. Simoes, Chester Schmaltz and Luiz R. Ramos

exercising near the homes of the older population, and (3) a minimal brief counseling intervention on the increase of leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) in the short and long term in an urban cohort of older adults. Methods This study was carried out in the Vila Clementino region in the city of São Paulo