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Dafna Merom, Heather Bowles and Adrian Bauman

Background:

Walking is the most prevalent form of leisure time physical activity (LTPA). Advances in measurement of walking depend on understanding sources of error in self report. We examined the effect of prompting “walking for exercise, recreation, and sport” (WERS) upon surveillance estimates of LTPA and assessed what types of walking were recalled when reporting LTPA generally and when WERS was prompted specifically.

Methods:

Data were collected by telephone survey from a random sample of 3,415 Australian adults (≥15yrs). Respondents were asked first to recall any type of LTPA they participated in (unprompted) and if walking was not mentioned, WERS was prompted. All walkers were asked to describe the type of walking they did. Open-ended responses were categorized according to physical activity measurement dimensions.

Results:

Forty three percent did not report WERS unless prompted to do so. The prevalence of meeting recommendations by all LTPA was reduced by 10% for both genders and across all age groups if not prompted to recall WERS. The interpretation of WERS was broad and included travel related walking and dog walking whether unprompted or prompted.

Conclusions:

Current challenges in walking surveillance include ensuring that both researchers and respondents understand WERS in a standardized manner.

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Tracie A. Barnett, Lise Gauvin, Cora L. Craig and Peter T. Katzmarzyk

Background:

We investigated the population trajectory of leisure time physical activity (LTPA) in adults age 18 to 60 y (n = 881), who were recruited in 1981 for the Canada Fitness Survey and followed-up through the Campbell’s Survey on Well-Being (1988) and the Physical Activity Longitudinal Study (2002/04).

Methods:

Data on involvement in LTPA were collected by questionnaire and used to estimate average daily energy expenditure (EE) (kcal · kg-1 · d-1) during leisure time. Growth trajectory modeling was used to describe the overall population trajectory of LTPA and the extent to which average trajectories varied between sub-groups defined by age, sex, and education.

Results:

The population trajectory of LTPA over time was modified by baseline age, but not by sex or by level of education. Disparities in LTPA related to sex and education persisted over two decades.

Conclusion:

This longitudinal investigation improves our understanding of the processes underlying patterns of LTPA in adults.

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Sylvia E. Badon, Alyson J. Littman, K.C. Gary Chan, Michelle A. Williams and Daniel A. Enquobahrie

Regular moderate/vigorous-intensity leisure-time physical activity is recommended before and during pregnancy. 1 However, only 23% of US pregnant women met the physical activity recommendations from 1999 to 2006. 2 Because of the low prevalence of high-intensity physical activity among pregnant

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Natalie Kružliaková, Paul A. Estabrooks, Wen You, Valisa Hedrick, Kathleen Porter, Michaela Kiernan and Jamie Zoellner

to interpret and some lack responsiveness (ie, the ability of an instrument to detect change over time in the construct measured). 25 The Stanford Leisure-Time Activity Categorical Item (L-Cat) and the Godin Leisure-Time Exercise Questionnaire (GLTEQ) demonstrate potential to overcome barriers

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Vera K. Tsenkova, Chioun Lee and Jennifer Morozink Boylan

domain is currently understudied. Differentiating among leisure-time physical activity (LTPA), occupational physical activity (OPA), and household physical activity (HPA) has offered evidence that domain matters. For example, the association between LTPA and glucoregulation is widely studied and

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Inácio Crochemore M. da Silva, Grégore I. Mielke, Andréa D. Bertoldi, Paulo Sergio Dourado Arrais, Vera Lucia Luiza, Sotero Serrate Mengue and Pedro C. Hallal

to be stable with prevalence of about 30%, according to the current guidelines (at least 150 min of moderate to vigorous intensity physical activity per week). 5 In terms of domains, although work-related physical activity tends to be decreasing, leisure-time physical activity seems to be slightly

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Ray M. Merrill

In the United States, an increase in leisure-time physical activity occurred from 1997 through 2016, for both adult men (17.2%) and women (25.6%). 1 Greater leisure-time physical activity is associated with better health, quality of life, and longevity. 2 – 7 Being physically active also lowers

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Madhura Phansikar and Sean P. Mullen

Engagement in physical activity is known to have cognitive benefits across the lifespan ( Hillman, Erickson, & Kramer, 2008 ). Among older adults, leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) has been shown to have protective effects against neurodegenerative diseases and age-related cognitive decline

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Carla L. Dellaserra, Noe C. Crespo, Michael Todd, Jennifer Huberty and Sonia Vega-López

acculturation levels and PA may also differ based on the specific PA domain being studied (eg, leisure, transportation, occupational). For example, studies have shown that greater acculturation level among MA adults have been associated with greater time spent in moderate to vigorous PA (MVPA), leisure-time

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Chia-Yuan Yu, Su-I Hou and Jonathan Miller

and a fear of falling. In addition, the absence of an exercise companion is a crucial barrier to leisure-time physical activity in older adults, 18 due to increased physical limitations. People with a spouse or companion are more likely to engage in leisure-time physical activity than those without