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David Atkin, Leo W. Jeffres, Jae-Won Lee and Kimberly A. Neuendorf

The current study examined relationships between sports consumption, values, and media use. In particular, the authors considered relationships between athletic or physical values, perceptions of their portrayal in the entertainment media, sports media use, athletic behaviors (attending events, playing sports), and general media use. A probability survey in a major metropolitan area revealed that sports fandom is related to the importance of being healthy, athletic, and physically fit. These findings suggest that the “passive” leisure allocations commonly ascribed to sports viewing do not displace “active” leisure in the form of actual attendance at sporting events and programs. With regard to sports competition generally, then, the authors see little support for Putnam’s (1995, 2001) metaphor of “bowling alone” (or media-induced malaise) among our sports fans.

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Kindal A. Shores and Stephanie T. West

Background:

While considerable attention has been given to quantifying leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) among subpopulations, less attention has focused on the perception of the experience as leisure. The current study describes the prevalence of leisure-like experiences during LTPA among college students. We describe the social contexts and activity settings that contribute to participant enjoyment of LTPA since enjoyment has been linked to participation and adherence.

Methods:

Data were collected from 192 undergraduate students using a short questionnaire and 2 days of time diaries.

Results:

Respondents spent nearly equal time working, sleeping, and engaged in discretionary activities. Students reported 512 minutes of discretionary time each day, of which 77 minutes were spent in LTPA and 68% was classified by respondents as leisure. Active sports/ exercise (including aerobics and weight lifting), walking, and dancing at bars or parties were the most frequent LTPA choices. When LTPA involved the presence of human companions, activities were more likely to be perceived by respondents as leisure experiences. Physical activities undertaken at public parks, bars/dance clubs and private recreation centers were also more likely to be perceived as leisure experiences.

Conclusions:

Findings indicate that social instead of traditional exercise activities may motivate LTPA participation among college students. For example, results suggest the importance of dancing in this population.

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Barbara A. Brown and B. Gail Frankel

This study examines participation in leisure physical activity, leisure satisfaction, and life satisfaction from a life course perspective, using self-report data from a stratified random sample of adults living in a midsized Canadian city. Findings indicate that physical activity is most strongly associated with leisure satisfaction in the younger age groups, whereas no consistent age pattern is observed in the relationship between physical activity and life satisfaction. Regression analyses that are controlled for income, education, and age indicate major gender differences in the impact of participation in leisure physical activity on life satisfaction, with participation being more important for females. Path analysis indicates that leisure satisfaction contributes both directly and indirectly to life satisfaction. The findings provide evidence for age variation in sources of life satisfaction apart from leisure, and for important gender differences in the role of physical activity.

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Sandra O’Briem Cousins and Norah Keating

Federal studies report that health-promoting physical activity declines markedly over the life course, so that by late life, about half of Canadian elderly women are sedentary. Although some older women are engaged in optimal levels of exercise, others develop lifestyles that are generally sedentary. This divergence of women's pursuit of leisure-time activity requires examination. Focus groups with active and sedentary older women were conducted to explore the variability Of participation in health-promoting forms of physical activity over the life course. The life course perspective of Bengston and Allen (1993) provided a framework for the investigation of the life cycle patterns of these women. Although life stages and life events of these women were similar, the pathways of coping with life challenges differed between the two groups. Content analysis highlighted the importance of turning points that led women to either significantly increase or decrease physical activity.

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Sylvia E. Badon, Alyson J. Littman, K.C. Gary Chan, Michelle A. Williams and Daniel A. Enquobahrie

Regular moderate/vigorous-intensity leisure-time physical activity is recommended before and during pregnancy. 1 However, only 23% of US pregnant women met the physical activity recommendations from 1999 to 2006. 2 Because of the low prevalence of high-intensity physical activity among pregnant

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Rodrigo S. Reis, Adriano Akira F. Hino, Danielle K. Cruz, Lourival Espiridião da Silva Filho, Deborah C. Malta, Marlos R. Domingues and Pedro C. Hallal

Background:

The purpose of this study was to evaluate associations between exposure to the Exercise Orientation Service (EOS) program and physical activity (PA) and quality of life (QoL) in adults from Vitoria, Brazil.

Methods:

A phone survey was conducted with 2023 randomly selected participants (≥ 18 years) to measure awareness about the program, participation in the program, PA levels, and QoL. The associations were tested using Poisson and Linear regression models.

Results:

31.5% reported awareness about the program, 1.5% reported current participation, and 5.8% reported previous participation. Participation was higher among women (2.1%), older subjects (2.8%), and those reporting morbidities (2.4%). Awareness was higher among middle-aged persons (36.0%) and highly educated participants (37.1%). Current participation (PR = 2.22; 95% CI = 1.65–2.99) and awareness (PR = 1.15; 95% CI = 1.02–1.30) were associated with leisure-time PA (LTPA).

Conclusion:

Exposure to the program was not associated with QoL but was consistently associated with sufficient levels of LTPA among adults from Vitoria, Brazil.

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Vera K. Tsenkova, Chioun Lee and Jennifer Morozink Boylan

. Current US physical activity guidelines provide specific recommendations about intensity, frequency, duration, and types of physical activity that confer health benefits. 10 Physical activity occurs in different domains (eg, at work, around the house, for leisure), and the role of physical activity

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Natalie Kružliaková, Paul A. Estabrooks, Wen You, Valisa Hedrick, Kathleen Porter, Michaela Kiernan and Jamie Zoellner

to interpret and some lack responsiveness (ie, the ability of an instrument to detect change over time in the construct measured). 25 The Stanford Leisure-Time Activity Categorical Item (L-Cat) and the Godin Leisure-Time Exercise Questionnaire (GLTEQ) demonstrate potential to overcome barriers

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Chad S.G. Witcher, Nicholas L. Holt, John C. Spence and Sandra O’Brien Cousins

The purpose of this study was to assess rural older adults’ perceptions of leisure-time physical activity and examine these perceptions from a historical perspective. Semistructured interviews were conducted with 10 inhabitants (mean age 82 years) of Fogo Island, Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and subjected to inductive analysis. Member-checking interviews were conducted with 5 participants. Findings indicated that beginning in childhood, participants were socialized into a subculture of work activity. As a result of these historical and social forces, leisure-time physical activity did not form part of the participants’ lives after retirement. Strategies for successful aging involved keeping busy, but this “busyness” did not include leisure-time physical activity. Results demonstrated the importance of developing a broader understanding of how past and present-day contexts can influence participation in leisure-time physical activity.

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James J. McClain, David Grant, Gordon Willis and David Berrigan

Background:

Question design can influence the validity and reliability of physical activity (PA) self-report instruments. This study assesses the effect of temporal domain (“days” walked versus “times” walked) on survey questions about walking behavior.

Methods:

A 2005 California Health Interview Survey (CHIS) sub-sample (n = 6332) reported the number of days or times they walked for leisure or transportation in the past 7 days and the usual time spent per day or per time. Question order was randomized by temporal domain. Minutes walked per week (mean ± SE) and adherence to PA guidelines (≥150 min/wk) were assessed.

Results:

Estimates of leisure walking remained stable across temporal domain (days = 71.4 ± 2.5 min; times = 73.4 ± 2.4 min), but transportation walking differed depending on domain (days = 70.4 ± 3.2 min; times = 52.5 ± 2.6 min). Adherence to PA guidelines based on leisure walking was stable across temporal domain (days = 14.9 ± 0.6%; times = 14.9 ± 0.6%), but again differed by domain for transportation walking (days = 10.4 ± 0.6%; times = 7.8 ± 0.5%). A large order effect (number-of-days versus number-of-times asked first) was observed for reports of days walking for transportation (days first = 87.8 ± 2.9 min; times first = 52.3 ± 2.5 min).

Conclusion:

Temporal domain influences estimates of self-reported transportation walking behavior. Current efforts to capture PA from both transportation and leisure activities in health research appear to present distinct methodological challenges.