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Sports in the Media: Perceptions of Athletic Activities and Their Influence on Leisure

David Atkin, Leo W. Jeffres, Jae-Won Lee, and Kimberly A. Neuendorf

The current study examined relationships between sports consumption, values, and media use. In particular, the authors considered relationships between athletic or physical values, perceptions of their portrayal in the entertainment media, sports media use, athletic behaviors (attending events, playing sports), and general media use. A probability survey in a major metropolitan area revealed that sports fandom is related to the importance of being healthy, athletic, and physically fit. These findings suggest that the “passive” leisure allocations commonly ascribed to sports viewing do not displace “active” leisure in the form of actual attendance at sporting events and programs. With regard to sports competition generally, then, the authors see little support for Putnam’s (1995, 2001) metaphor of “bowling alone” (or media-induced malaise) among our sports fans.

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Amount, Type, and Timing of Domain-Specific Moderate to Vigorous Physical Activity Among US Adults

Pedro F. Saint-Maurice, David Berrigan, Geoffrey P. Whitfield, Kathleen B. Watson, Shreya Patel, Erikka Loftfield, Joshua N. Sampson, Janet E. Fulton, and Charles E. Matthews

to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) during leisure time, at work, doing household chores, or for transportation to/from places. Participation in leisure-time physical activity has been well characterized in many surveillance studies 2 – 8 ; however, it is less clear how much MVPA US adults

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Pursuing Leisure During Leisure-Time Physical Activity

Kindal A. Shores and Stephanie T. West


While considerable attention has been given to quantifying leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) among subpopulations, less attention has focused on the perception of the experience as leisure. The current study describes the prevalence of leisure-like experiences during LTPA among college students. We describe the social contexts and activity settings that contribute to participant enjoyment of LTPA since enjoyment has been linked to participation and adherence.


Data were collected from 192 undergraduate students using a short questionnaire and 2 days of time diaries.


Respondents spent nearly equal time working, sleeping, and engaged in discretionary activities. Students reported 512 minutes of discretionary time each day, of which 77 minutes were spent in LTPA and 68% was classified by respondents as leisure. Active sports/ exercise (including aerobics and weight lifting), walking, and dancing at bars or parties were the most frequent LTPA choices. When LTPA involved the presence of human companions, activities were more likely to be perceived by respondents as leisure experiences. Physical activities undertaken at public parks, bars/dance clubs and private recreation centers were also more likely to be perceived as leisure experiences.


Findings indicate that social instead of traditional exercise activities may motivate LTPA participation among college students. For example, results suggest the importance of dancing in this population.

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Life Cycle Patterns of Physical Activity among Sedentary and Active Older Women

Sandra O’Briem Cousins and Norah Keating

Federal studies report that health-promoting physical activity declines markedly over the life course, so that by late life, about half of Canadian elderly women are sedentary. Although some older women are engaged in optimal levels of exercise, others develop lifestyles that are generally sedentary. This divergence of women's pursuit of leisure-time activity requires examination. Focus groups with active and sedentary older women were conducted to explore the variability Of participation in health-promoting forms of physical activity over the life course. The life course perspective of Bengston and Allen (1993) provided a framework for the investigation of the life cycle patterns of these women. Although life stages and life events of these women were similar, the pathways of coping with life challenges differed between the two groups. Content analysis highlighted the importance of turning points that led women to either significantly increase or decrease physical activity.

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Promoting Physical Activity and Quality of Life in Vitoria, Brazil: Evaluation of the Exercise Orientation Service (EOS) Program

Rodrigo S. Reis, Adriano Akira F. Hino, Danielle K. Cruz, Lourival Espiridião da Silva Filho, Deborah C. Malta, Marlos R. Domingues, and Pedro C. Hallal


The purpose of this study was to evaluate associations between exposure to the Exercise Orientation Service (EOS) program and physical activity (PA) and quality of life (QoL) in adults from Vitoria, Brazil.


A phone survey was conducted with 2023 randomly selected participants (≥ 18 years) to measure awareness about the program, participation in the program, PA levels, and QoL. The associations were tested using Poisson and Linear regression models.


31.5% reported awareness about the program, 1.5% reported current participation, and 5.8% reported previous participation. Participation was higher among women (2.1%), older subjects (2.8%), and those reporting morbidities (2.4%). Awareness was higher among middle-aged persons (36.0%) and highly educated participants (37.1%). Current participation (PR = 2.22; 95% CI = 1.65–2.99) and awareness (PR = 1.15; 95% CI = 1.02–1.30) were associated with leisure-time PA (LTPA).


Exposure to the program was not associated with QoL but was consistently associated with sufficient levels of LTPA among adults from Vitoria, Brazil.

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Promoting Active Aging Through Sports Participation: A Qualitative Exploration of Serious Leisure Among Older Chinese Adults

Wenting Zhou, Yajun Qiu, and Haibo Tian

people in social activity, which helps them maintain independence and live with dignity. Studies have found that engaging in serious leisure in later life contributes to positive experiences and quality of life ( Cheng et al., 2017 ; Heo et al., 2010 ; Lee et al., 2019 ). The theory of serious leisure

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Different Levels of Leisure Walking and Mental Health Among Older Adults With Mild Cognitive Impairment

Jungjoo Lee, Seok Min Oh, Jaehyun Kim, and Junhyoung Kim

impairment in older adults experiencing MCI ( Brasure et al., 2018 ; Butler et al., 2018 ; Kim et al., 2022). Research on the benefits of active engagement in leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) provides ample evidence that it enhances cognitive functions and helps prevent cognitive impairment among older

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A Case Study of Physical Activity among Older Adults in Rural Newfoundland, Canada

Chad S.G. Witcher, Nicholas L. Holt, John C. Spence, and Sandra O’Brien Cousins

The purpose of this study was to assess rural older adults’ perceptions of leisure-time physical activity and examine these perceptions from a historical perspective. Semistructured interviews were conducted with 10 inhabitants (mean age 82 years) of Fogo Island, Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and subjected to inductive analysis. Member-checking interviews were conducted with 5 participants. Findings indicated that beginning in childhood, participants were socialized into a subculture of work activity. As a result of these historical and social forces, leisure-time physical activity did not form part of the participants’ lives after retirement. Strategies for successful aging involved keeping busy, but this “busyness” did not include leisure-time physical activity. Results demonstrated the importance of developing a broader understanding of how past and present-day contexts can influence participation in leisure-time physical activity.

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Factors Associated With Participation in Physical Leisure Activities in Taiwanese Community-Dwelling Older Adults

Szu-Wei Chen, Tracy Chippendale, and Sharon L. Weinberg

leisure activities is a critical element to healthy aging ( Bowling, 2008 ; Lee et al., 2011 ). Leisure participation refers to taking part in nonobligatory activities that are intrinsically motivated, engaged in during discretionary time, and viewed positively. Engaging in leisure was found to reduce

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Exploring Issues in Transnational Sport History

Robert J. Lake and Simon J. Eaves

, jingoism, and xenophobia. Sport, defined broadly to incorporate the myriad of leisure and recreation activities, is now understood to be an important platform from which to understand, and an important vehicle for the transmission of messages about, nations and their people in a collective sense. This is