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Inácio Crochemore M. da Silva, Grégore I. Mielke, Andréa D. Bertoldi, Paulo Sergio Dourado Arrais, Vera Lucia Luiza, Sotero Serrate Mengue and Pedro C. Hallal

to be stable with prevalence of about 30%, according to the current guidelines (at least 150 min of moderate to vigorous intensity physical activity per week). 5 In terms of domains, although work-related physical activity tends to be decreasing, leisure-time physical activity seems to be slightly

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Madhura Phansikar and Sean P. Mullen

Engagement in physical activity is known to have cognitive benefits across the lifespan ( Hillman, Erickson, & Kramer, 2008 ). Among older adults, leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) has been shown to have protective effects against neurodegenerative diseases and age-related cognitive decline

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Chia-Yuan Yu, Su-I Hou and Jonathan Miller

and a fear of falling. In addition, the absence of an exercise companion is a crucial barrier to leisure-time physical activity in older adults, 18 due to increased physical limitations. People with a spouse or companion are more likely to engage in leisure-time physical activity than those without

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Francini Vilela Novais, Eduardo J. Simoes, Chester Schmaltz and Luiz R. Ramos

exercising near the homes of the older population, and (3) a minimal brief counseling intervention on the increase of leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) in the short and long term in an urban cohort of older adults. Methods This study was carried out in the Vila Clementino region in the city of São Paulo

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Kindal A. Shores and Stephanie T. West

Background:

While considerable attention has been given to quantifying leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) among subpopulations, less attention has focused on the perception of the experience as leisure. The current study describes the prevalence of leisure-like experiences during LTPA among college students. We describe the social contexts and activity settings that contribute to participant enjoyment of LTPA since enjoyment has been linked to participation and adherence.

Methods:

Data were collected from 192 undergraduate students using a short questionnaire and 2 days of time diaries.

Results:

Respondents spent nearly equal time working, sleeping, and engaged in discretionary activities. Students reported 512 minutes of discretionary time each day, of which 77 minutes were spent in LTPA and 68% was classified by respondents as leisure. Active sports/ exercise (including aerobics and weight lifting), walking, and dancing at bars or parties were the most frequent LTPA choices. When LTPA involved the presence of human companions, activities were more likely to be perceived by respondents as leisure experiences. Physical activities undertaken at public parks, bars/dance clubs and private recreation centers were also more likely to be perceived as leisure experiences.

Conclusions:

Findings indicate that social instead of traditional exercise activities may motivate LTPA participation among college students. For example, results suggest the importance of dancing in this population.

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Matti Hyvärinen, Sarianna Sipilä, Janne Kulmala, Harto Hakonen, Tuija H. Tammelin, Urho M. Kujala, Vuokko Kovanen and Eija K. Laakkonen

known to provide health benefits and higher occupational physical activity may be less beneficial compared to leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) because higher occupational physical activity may predispose to lower LTPA ( Holtermann, Krause, van der Beek, & Straker, 2018 ; Prince, Elliott, Scott

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Joey C. Eisenmann, P.T. Katzmarzyk and Mark S. Tremblay

Background:

In recent years, it has been noted that children and youth are physically inactive, and physical activity levels have declined over the past decades. However, few empirical studies have been conducted to test this assumption. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine leisure-time physical activity levels among Canadian adolescents 12–19 years of age.

Methods:

Age, sex, geographic, and temporal trends in leisure-time physical activity energy expenditure (AEE) were examined using data from 5 national surveys conducted between 1981 and 1998. AEE was calculated from participants’ questionnaire responses on physical activity participation. General linear models were used to examine the differences in AEE across survey years, geographic regions, sexes, and age groups.

Results:

Males and 12–14-year-olds displayed greater AEE than females and 15–19-year-olds, respectively, and AEE was lowest in Quebec and highest in the West. AEE increased between the 1981 and 1988 surveys and has since remained relatively stable. The prevalence of subjects meeting the 12.6 kJ · kg−1 · d−1 (3 kcal · kg−1 · d−1) recommendation increased from 1981 to 1988. Since 1988, the prevalence of those meeting the 12.6 kJ · kg−1 · d−1 recommendation has decreased in 12–14 year old boys and remained relatively stable in the other groups. In 1998, about 45% of males and 35% of females met the 12.6 kJ · kg−1 · d−1 recommendation. In 1998, about 20% of 12–19-year-old males and 12–14-year-old females met the 25.1 kJ · kg−1 · d−1 (6 kcal · kg−1 · d−1) recommendation, while about 10% of 15–19-year-old females met this recommendation. In females, the prevalence of those meeting the 25.1 kJ · kg−1 · d−1 recommendation has remained relatively stable (about 10%) since 1981 except for an increase between 1996 and 1998 in 12–14-year-old girls. In males, a similar pattern, but not as dramatic, of that observed for the prevalence of those meeting the 12.6 kJ · kg−1 · d−1 emerged—that is, an increase between 1981 and 1988 and then a decrease in 12–14-year-old boys and a stable pattern in 15–19-year-old boys.

Conclusion:

Although self-reported leisure-time physical activity appears to have increased since 1981, a majority of Canadian adolescents do not meet current recommendations for physical activity.

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Mary Ann Devine

College years are an experimental phase in young adulthood and can lay the foundation for lifelong behaviors. One type of behavior developed during these years is the use of leisure-time physical activity (LTPA). LTPA experiences of typical college students have been examined, but there is a lack of studies examining the experiences of students with disabilities. The purpose of this inquiry is to understand the experiences of college students with disabilities and their LTPA, with focus on factors that facilitate or create barriers to engagement. Grounded theory was used to understand LTPA with undergraduates with mobility or visual impairments. Results indicated a theme of culture of physical activity and disability as they received a message that engagement in LTPA was “unnecessary” or “heroic,” which altered their LTPA experiences. Barriers to LTPA can be understood through a social relational lens to recognize the multidimensionality of barriers and facilitators to LTPA.

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Lee Smith, Brendon Stubbs, L. Hu, Nicola Veronese, Davy Vancampfort, Genevieve Williams, Domenico Vicinanza, Sarah E. Jackson, Li Ying, Guillermo F. López-Sánchez and Lin Yang

include leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) and active travel (ie, walking and cycling). Although there is sufficient evidence to show that overall physical activity is beneficial for physical health, 1 , 2 domain-specific benefits are known to a lesser extent. Overall physical activity may have

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Inacio Crochemore Mohnsam da Silva, Mario Renato Azevedo and Helen Gonçalves

Objective:

To explore the association between family and friends’ social support and leisure-time physical activity (PA) in adults.

Methods:

Cross-sectional population-based study, conducted in Pelotas, Brazil. Leisure-time PA was measured with the long version of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. Those who reported PA practice ≥ 150 minutes on the week before the interview were considered active. Social support was evaluated through the Social Support Scale for PA and classified according to the type of PA. For analyzing the association between social support and PA, Poisson regression model was used. Analyses were stratified by sex and interactions with socioeconomic level and age were explored.

Results:

Men and women who received social support from family and friends simultaneously were about 3 times more active than their counterparts. Friends’ social support presented, in all analyses, stronger associations with PA than family support. Interactions with socioeconomic level and age were observed.

Conclusion:

Interventions targeting individuals and their social environment are likely to have greater effectiveness than those targeted on one of these aspects only.