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Shushu Chen and Laura Misener

region. As a result, there has been an increasing interest in the concept of event leverage (e.g.,  Chalip, 2004 ; Chalip, Green, Taks, & Misener, 2017 ; Misener, McGillivray, McPherson, & Legg, 2015 ; O’Brien, 2006 ; Smith, 2009 ). The core argument underlying this concept is that through strategic

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Laura Misener and Nico Schulenkorf

With an increasing emphasis on the social value of sport and events, there has been a shift in focus regarding the management and development process of event projects as well as their associated outcomes. This shift is about emphasizing a more strategic approach to developing social benefits by recognizing and utilizing leverageable resources related to sport events as a means of fostering lasting social and economic change (Chalip, 2006; O’Brien & Chalip, 2007; Schulenkorf & Edwards, 2012). In this paper, we adapt and apply the asset-based community development (ABCD) approach as a means of developing a more action-oriented, community-based approach to leveraging the social assets of sporting events. In applying the ABCD approach, we aim to shift the focus of event-led projects away from attempts to “solve” social problems (i.e., deficit perspective) to enhancing the existing strengths of communities (i.e., strengths perspective). We reflect on case study findings that highlight the challenges and opportunities in realizing an ABCD approach for disadvantaged communities through an examination of a healthy lifestyle community event initiative in the Pacific Islands.

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Fei Gao, Bob Heere, Samuel Y. Todd, and Brian Mihalik

champion certain social causes, and their efforts are seldom evaluated. Chalip ( 2006 ) pointed researchers to this very issue, as he argued for studies on social leverage, which he defined as strategies initiated by stakeholders prior to the event to obtain certain social objectives, and he advocated for

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Vassilios Ziakas and Sylvia Trendafilova

couple of specific models and concepts related to event leverage ( Chalip, 2004 ; O’Brien & Chalip, 2008 ) and event portfolio management ( Ziakas, 2014 ) that would be extremely helpful in guiding him through his first task. First things first, Ian knew that he had to learn the town’s socio

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Laura Misener, Landy Di Lu, and Robert Carlisi

With the rising importance of delivering positive social outcomes from hosting a large-scale sport event, sport management scholars and practitioners have shown growing interest in the concept of event leveraging ( Chalip, 2006 , 2017 ; Chen & Misener, 2019 ; Karadakis, Kaplanidou, & Karlis

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Emily K. Romano, Kyle A. Rich, and Dennis Quesnel

Fortunato, the Events Services committee chair for the Canada Games. Sloane has been emailing back and forth with Maria, working to develop ideas for programs that can be implemented during the Games to effectively leverage the event to promote inclusion and diversity. So far, Maria has been a great

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Laurence Chalip and Anna Leyns

Four studies are reported that examine the status and potentials for local businesses to leverage the Gold Coast Honda Indy. The leveraging efforts of local businesses are identified in Study 1. Most local business managers fail to recognize the event as a leveraging opportunity. Tactics used by businesses that do attempt to leverage the event are examined in Study 2. Businesses that leverage the event obtain benefits through the use of standard promotional and theming tactics. Experts’ views about leveraging the event are obtained in Study 3. The experts conclude that some coordination of local businesses' leveraging efforts would be advantageous. The views of local business leaders are solicited in Study 4. The business leaders favor leveraging but prefer that the coordination come from an existing business organization or association, rather than through government or a new bureaucracy. The studies suggest that the potentials for leveraging are largely unrealized and that some degree of inertia would need to be overcome to realize those potentials. It is argued that event organizers have the most to gain by fostering and coordinating local business leveraging.

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Colleen M. Doyle


Many Americans do not meet current minimum physical activity recommendations. Although the choice to be physically active is made by individuals, that choice is affected by the social and physical environments in which people live, work, play and learn. Creating environments that are more supportive of physical activity will require policies, practices and programs that individuals may not be able to influence on their own; such changes will require comprehensive, coordinated and collaborative action by a variety of organizational sectors at national, state and local levels. Because of their core—and frequently unique—competencies, many non-profit organizations are poised to be active players in promoting important changes in policy and community environments that can facilitate lifelong physical activity for all Americans.


Review of mission statements and strategic plans of a variety of non-profit organizations reveal key characteristics and competencies that can be leveraged, frequently across multiple levels and sectors, to promote physical activity.

Key recommendations:

Nonprofit organizations should leverage their unique capabilities, particularly in the areas of advocacy, strategic collaborations and outreach to their membership, volunteer and/or constituent bases to promote policy and environmental changes in support of physical activity.

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Lance Kinney and Stephen R. McDaniel

Event sponsorship has become a multibillion dollar industry (Levin, 1993), yet little theory-driven research exists exploring sponsorship effects (Cunningham & Taylor, 1994), Keller (1993) noted that customer-based brand equity is the appropriate goal of all elements of the marketing mix, including promotions such as sponsorship. The effectiveness of these promotions may be observed through what Keller terms “direct measures pitting known brands against unknown or fictitious brands.” This study uses an experimental design employing attitude-toward-the-ad (AAD) as a direct measure of sponsorship support, advertising impact on attitude-toward-the-brand (AH), and purchase intention (PI) for official sponsors and ambush marketers in the fast food and credit card product categories of the 1994 Winter Olympic Games. Ambush marketers are those companies that use advertising to make it appear as if they are associated with the Games without purchasing official sponsorship rights (Sandier & Shani, 1989). Based on these results, there appeared to be no competitive advantage for official sponsors in terms of AAD's influence on PL These findings suggest that leveraging a sponsorship with advertising does not always ensure competitive advantage in terms of building customer-based brand equity.

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Nico Schulenkorf and Deborah Edwards

Building on the evidence of social impacts generated by sport events, there is a need for research to identify strategies suitable for maximizing event benefits for disparate interest communities. This paper investigates the opportunities and strategic means for sustaining and leveraging social event benefits arising from intercommunity sport events in the ethnically divided Sri Lanka. Following an interpretive mode of inquiry, findings are derived from the analysis of two focus groups and 35 in-depth interviews with Sinhalese, Tamil, Muslim and international event stakeholders. To maximize event benefits, findings suggest that event organizers and host communities focus strategically on children as catalysts for change; increase ethnically mixed team sport activities; provide event-related sociocultural opportunities; combine large-scale events with regular sport-for-development programs; and engage in social, cultural, political and educational event leverage. By implementing these strategies and tactics, intercommunity sport events are likely to contribute to local capacity building and inclusive social change, which can have flow-on effects to the wider community. These findings extend the academic literature on strategic event planning, management and leverage, as they provide a focus on community event leverage for social purposes in a developing world context—an area which has thus far received limited empirical research.