This study sought to describe the degree of success of a basic tenet of liberal feminism in providing equal opportunity as defined by female representation in the NCAA. The study showed how the NCAA is reflective of an association that is an instrument of domination. The purpose of the study was to determine the number of women holding leadership positions at the campus level in NCAA labeled functions. These data were compared with similar 1987-88 data. In addition, male and female representatives at the national level on committees and councils were compared to similar data collected in 1987-88. A gender comparison was made with the 1992-93 data involving NCAA national committees. The data revealed that there were significantly more males than females on NCAA national committees in 1992-93. The results of χ2 tests between years and female representation revealed no significant increase in female representation between 1987 and 1993; however, there was an increase in female representation beyond the mandated percentage required by NCAA bylaws.
Is Liberal Feminism Working in the NCAA?
Dorothy J. Lovett and Carla D. Lowry
Framing of Sport Coverage Based on the Sex of Sports Writers: Female Journalists Counter the Traditional Gendering of Media Coverage
Edward M. Kian and Marie Hardin
This study examined effects of the sex of sports writers on the framing of athletes in print-media coverage of intercollegiate men’s and women’s basketball tournaments. The number of articles by female and male authors and the frames used were analyzed. Descriptors of players, coaches, and both tournaments in articles from CBS SportsLine, ESPN Internet, The New York Times, and USA Today were coded with the authors’ names initially hidden. Results showed that female journalists were more apt to cover women’s basketball, and men predominantly wrote about men’s basketball. The sex of writers also influenced the ways female and male athletes were presented. Male writers were more likely to reinforce gender stereotypes by praising the athleticism of male athletes. In contrast, female writers more often framed female athletes for their athletic prowess. The results suggest that female sports writers can make some difference in framing, but institutional structures minimize their impact.
If You Let Me Play: Young Girls’ Insider-Other Narratives of Sport
Cheryl Cooky and Mary G. McDonald
In this article we explore the narratives that 10 White, middle-class female athletes, ages 11–14, (co)produce around their sport experiences. Through interviews, observation, and participant observation, we argue that, consistent with the advertising rhetoric of such multinational corporations as Nike, these girls all advocate hard work, choice, opportunity, and personal responsibility in playing sport and in challenging gender discrimination. We argue this reflects the girls’ subscription to elements of liberal feminism and to their frequent positioning as “insider-others”—that is, outside the dominant gender norms of sport but simultaneously the beneficiaries of Whiteness and middle-class norms. In contrast to Nike and liberal feminists who frequently argue for equal opportunity in sport, these girls’ insider-other narratives suggest the need for critical interrogation of the multiple meanings and effects of sport experiences.
Gender Equality in the “Next Stage” of the “New Age?” Content and Fan Perceptions of English Media Coverage of the 2019 FIFA Women’s World Cup
Stacey Pope, Rachel Allison, and Kate Petty
co-opting the language and ideas of feminism to connect with readers and deflecting attention away from the media industry ( Daddario, 2021 ). Additionally, as Cooky and Antunovic ( 2022 ) have argued, liberal feminism has become the predominant form of feminism informing media coverage of women
Empowerment Discourses in Transnational Sporting Contexts: The Case of Sarah Attar, The First Female Saudi Olympian
the concept of “Muslim women’s rights” circulates across continents…we are confronted with the question of how to make sense of its travels and its translations across these forms and forums. ( Abu-Lughod, 2013 , p. 146) 21st century articulations of women’s human rights replace liberal feminism’s
Privileging Difference: Negotiating Gender Essentialism in U.S. Women’s Professional Soccer
compared with men ( Love & Kelly, 2011 ; Messner, 2011 ; Roth & Basow, 2004 ). Essentialist ideology has also been taken up within dominant, liberal feminist approaches to equality within sex-segregated sport, where these women’s lifetime experiences of sport have unfolded. Liberal feminism retains
Team Katniss? Adolescent Girls’ Participation in a Voluntary Archery After-School Program
an example of what Heywood ( 2006 ) describes when examining girls’ sports advocacy marketing: Its marketing approach weds the discourse of liberal feminism with that of neoliberalism, constructing sport as a space where girls learn to take responsibility for their own lives—a responsibility that