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Jennifer L.J. Heaney, Douglas Carroll and Anna C. Phillips

The present study examined the relationship between habitual physical activity, life events stress, the diurnal rhythms of cortisol and DHEA, and the cortisol:dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) ratio in older adults. Thirty-six participants aged ≥ 65 reported their habitual physical activity, and indicated if a particular event happened to them in the past year (stress incidence) and how stressful they perceived the event to be (stress severity). Older adults with higher stress severity demonstrated a significantly higher cortisol:DHEA ratio. Individuals with higher stress incidence scores and who did not participate in aerobic exercise had a significantly higher cortisol:DHEA ratio and flatter DHEA diurnal rhythm compared with those who regularly participated in aerobic exercise. In conclusion, life events stress may have a negative impact on the cortisol:DHEA ratio in older adults. Under conditions of high stress exposure, exercise may protect older adults from an increased cortisol:DHEA ratio and flatter DHEA diurnal rhythm.

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Tracie J. Rogers and Daniel M. Landers

The mediating effect of peripheral narrowing in the negative life event stress (N-LES)/athletic injury relationship was investigated. LES and other psychosocial variables were measured, and peripheral vision was assessed in nonstressful (practice day) and stressful (game day) sport situations. Results showed that total LES, N-LES, and psychological coping skills significantly contributed to the prediction of the occurrence of athletic injury. Additionally, psychological coping skills buffered the N-LES/athletic injury relationship. Peripheral narrowing during stress significantly mediated 8.1% of the N-LES/athletic injury relationship. The findings support the predictions of the model of stress and injury, provide evidence for peripheral narrowing as a mechanism in the LES/athletic injury relationship, and suggest directions for future research examining mediating effects in the model of stress and injury.

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Courtney B. Albinson and Trent A. Petrie

Objectives:

To examine the relationships among preinjury and postinjury stress, coping, personality, mood state, and rehabilitation adherence.

Design:

Participants completed measures of preinjury life-event stress, social-support satisfaction, dispositional optimism, and mood state. Injured athletes completed postinjury measures of mood state, coping methods, and cognitive appraisals of stress and coping ability 1, 4, 7, 14, and 28 days postinjury. Their athletic trainer completed a measure of rehabilitation adherence on those days.

Participants:

84 college football players including 19 injured athletes.

Results:

Negative-life-event stress predicted postinjury mood disturbance, which was positively related with appraisals. Appraisals were related to greater avoidance coping at day 7, greater active behavioral coping at days 14 and 28, and less active cognitive coping at day 28. Active behavioral coping was associated with greater mood disturbance, and active cognitive coping and avoidance coping were inversely related.

Conclusions:

Results support cognitive-appraisal models of sport injury and dynamic views of coping with injury.

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Andreas Ivarsson, Urban Johnson and Leslie Podlog

Context:

Athletes participating in sport are exposed to a high injury risk. Previous research has found a great number of risk factors (both physiological and psychological) that could increase injury risk.1 One limitation in previous studies is that few have considered the complex interaction between psychological factors in their research design.

Objective:

To study whether personality, stress, and coping predicted injury occurrence in an elite soccer population based on a hypothesized model.

Design:

Prospective.

Participants:

56 (n = 38 male, n = 18 female) Swedish Premiere League soccer players were selected based on convenience sampling.

Intervention:

Participants completed 4 questionnaires including the Swedish Universities Scales of Personality,2 Life Events Survey for Collegiate Athletes,3 and Brief COPE4 during the initial questionnaire administration. Subsequent to the first meeting, participants also completed the Hassle and Uplift Scale5 once per wk for a 13-wk period throughout the competitive season.

Main Outcome Measures:

A path analysis was conducted examining the influence of personality traits (ie, trait anxiety), state-level stressors (ie, negative-life-event stress and daily hassles), and coping on injury frequency.

Results:

Results of the path analysis indicated that trait anxiety, negative-life-event stress, and daily hassle were significant predictors of injury among professional soccer players, accounting for 24% of the variance.

Conclusion:

The findings highlight the need for athletes, coaches, and medical practitioners to attempt to reduce state-level stressors, especially daily hassles, in minimizing injury risk. Educating and training athletes and coaches in proactive stress-management techniques appears warranted.

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Mattias Eckerman, Kjell Svensson, Gunnar Edman and Marie Alricsson

, Landers D . Mediating effects of peripheral vision in the life event stress/athletic injury relationship . J Sport Exerc Psychol . 2005 ; 27 ( 3 ): 271 – 288 . doi: 10.1123/jsep.27.3.271 23. Clement D , Ivarsson A , Tranaeus U , Johnson U , Stenling A . Investigating the influence of

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Amanda E. Paluch, Robin P. Shook, Gregory A. Hand, Daniel P. O’Connor, Sara Wilcox, Clemens Drenowatz, Meghan Baruth, Stephanie Burgess and Steven N. Blair

deal of stress.” Cumulative life event occurrences was quantified as total number of life events that occurred each quarter. Cumulative life event stress score summed together all stress ratings from 1 to 5 for all the life events occurring in a quarter. Average number of life events per quarter and

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André L. Estrela, Aline Zaparte, Jeferson D. da Silva, José Cláudio Moreira, James E. Turner and Moisés E. Bauer

.C. ( 2014 ). Physical activity, life events stress, cortisol, and DHEA: preliminary findings that physical activity may buffer against the negative effects of stress . Journal of Aging and Physical Activity, 22 ( 4 ), 465 – 473 . PubMed doi:10.1123/japa.2012-0082 10.1123/JAPA.2012-0082 Heaney , J

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Jahan Heidari, Johanna Belz, Monika Hasenbring, Jens Kleinert, Claudia Levenig and Michael Kellmann

illnesses. The stress-injury relationship could also be supported in a study conducted with college athletes active in various athletic domains. 33 Negative life-event stress was assessed with the Life Events Survey for College Athletes 34 and was identified as a substantial predictor for the outcome

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Monna Arvinen-Barrow, Kelsey DeGrave, Stephen Pack and Brian Hemmings

event, stress and illness . Malaysian Journal of Medical Sciences, 15 ( 4 ), 9 – 18 . PubMed ID: 22589633 Morris , R. , Tod , D. , & Oliver , E. ( 2015 ). An analysis of organizational structure and transition outcomes in the youth-to-senior professional soccer transition . Journal of