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Yuhei Inoue, Mikihiro Sato, Kevin Filo, James Du and Daniel C. Funk

engagement in spectator sport events, both behaviorally through live spectating and psychologically through team identification, can contribute to life satisfaction. Life satisfaction is a key component of subjective well-being, referring to a cognitive judgmental assessment of one’s quality of life ( Diener

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Katie L. Morton, Julian Barling, Ryan E. Rhodes, Louise C. Mâsse, Bruno D. Zumbo and Mark R. Beauchamp

We draw upon transformational leadership theory to develop an instrument to measure transformational parenting for use with adolescents. First, potential items were generated that were developmentally appropriate and evidence for content validity was provided through the use of focus groups with parents and adolescents. We subsequently provide evidence for several aspects of construct validity of measures derived from the Transformational Parenting Questionnaire (TPQ). Data were collected from 857 adolescents (M age = 14.70 years), who rated the behaviors of their mothers and fathers. The results provided support for a second-order measurement model of transformational parenting. In addition, positive relationships between mothers’ and fathers’ transformational parenting behaviors, adolescents’ self-regulatory efficacy for physical activity and healthy eating, and life satisfaction were found. The results of this research support the application of transformational leadership theory to parenting behaviors, as well as the construct validity of measures derived from the TPQ.

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Fleur E.C.A. van Rens, Erika Borkoles, Damian Farrow and Remco C.J. Polman

’ psychological wellbeing ( Burgess & Naughton, 2010 ; Ivarsson et al., 2015 ). Yet this information is crucial to understand how the psychological wellbeing of junior elite athletes in dual careers can be facilitated ( Strachan, Côte, & Deakin, 2011 ). Wellbeing and Life Satisfaction in Junior Athletes’ Dual

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Philip E. Varca, Garnett Stokes Shaffer and Vickie Saunders

The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between sport participation and life satisfaction. It involved 286 females and 262 males, categorized into three levels of sport participation (high, medium, low), who responded to two measures of life satisfaction over a 9-year period. There was no significant relationship between sport participation and life satisfaction for women. Among men, however, the high sport participation group reported the highest level of life satisfaction as freshmen in college and again 5 years after graduation. A farther path analysis, focusing on the causal nature of the sport experience/life satisfaction relationship, revealed that sport participation during adolescence significantly affected adult life satisfaction for men. These findings are discussed in terms of the psychological effects of sport.

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Barbara A. Brown and B. Gail Frankel

This study examines participation in leisure physical activity, leisure satisfaction, and life satisfaction from a life course perspective, using self-report data from a stratified random sample of adults living in a midsized Canadian city. Findings indicate that physical activity is most strongly associated with leisure satisfaction in the younger age groups, whereas no consistent age pattern is observed in the relationship between physical activity and life satisfaction. Regression analyses that are controlled for income, education, and age indicate major gender differences in the impact of participation in leisure physical activity on life satisfaction, with participation being more important for females. Path analysis indicates that leisure satisfaction contributes both directly and indirectly to life satisfaction. The findings provide evidence for age variation in sources of life satisfaction apart from leisure, and for important gender differences in the role of physical activity.

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Mikihiro Sato, Jeremy S. Jordan and Daniel C. Funk

The current study examines whether a distance running event has the capacity to promote participants’ life satisfaction. The construct of psychological involvement was used to investigate the impact of attitude change through event preparation and subsequent activity. Data were collected four times through online surveys from running event participants (N = 211) over a five-month period. Latent growth modeling analyses revealed that participants’ life satisfaction peaked immediately after the event before receding, indicating that event participation exerted a positive impact on participants’ evaluations toward their lives. A positive significant association was also found between change in pleasure in running and change in life satisfaction. Findings from this study provide empirical support that a distance running event can serve as an environmental determinant that enhances participants’ life satisfaction by providing positive experiences through event participation and forming psychological involvement in physical activity.

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Douglas Kleiber, Susan Greendorfer, Elaine Blinde and Diane Samdahl

The possibility that the experience of retirement from sport may be different from one athlete to another has not been thoroughly examined. The current study offers evidence on the effect of role performance in intercollegiate basketball and football on life satisfaction in the period of adulthood immediately following. The theoretical departure point for this research comes from Kearl’s (1986) analysis of “exits” in everyday life and his assumption that the quality of role performance in the ending phases of a career will influence subsequent well-being. From a survey of recollections, orientations, and current conditions of 426 former football and basketball players, subjects were grouped according to whether they had received some kind of recognition during their last year (e.g., all-league, honorable mention), whether they had started most of the games or not, and whether their career had been cut short due to serious injury. Life satisfaction, as measured by the LSI-A, showed a significant main effect for career-ending injury but not for the other two variables, and there were no interactions. Athletes who had sustained a careerending injury before completing eligibility showed significantly lower life satisfaction than those who had not. Tests for the influence of year leaving sport and continued involvement in sport did not change the result. Thus, the evidence provides mixed support for the quality-of-exit thesis; while good endings may not affect subsequent life satisfaction, bad endings may.

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John B. Nezlek, Marzena Cypryańska, Piotr Cypryański, Karolina Chlebosz, Karolina Jenczylik, Joanna Sztachańska and Anna M. Zalewska

. Our measures were based on Ryff and Keyes’s ( 1995 ) model of well-being (self-esteem, self-efficacy, and meaning in life), Diener, Emmons, Larsen, and Griffin’s ( 1985 ) concept of life satisfaction, and Bradburn’s ( 1969 ) classic work on affect. We selected these measures because they represented a

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Frank M. Perna, Rebecca L. Ahlgren and Leonard Zaichkowsky

Collegiate male athletes and nonathletes’ (N = 76) level of life satisfaction was assessed at termination of their collegiate careers, and further analyses indicated the degree of association between athletic injury history and life satisfaction after accounting for demographic and career-planning variables. While no significant Group or Group by Race interaction effects were found, life satisfaction was significantly lower among African American students. Regression analysis, controlling for demographic variables, further indicated that athletes who had sustained a severe athletic injury were no less satisfied with life than noninjured and moderately injured athletes. However, athletes who could state a postcollegiate occupational plan were significantly more satisfied with life than those who were unable to indicate such a goal. Results suggest that the role of athletic participation and athletic injury with respect to life satisfaction may have been overemphasized. The potential role of career planning in understanding termination from collegiate sport is discussed.

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Fleur E.C.A. van Rens, Rebecca A. Ashley and Andrea R. Steele

, & Polman, 2018 ). Subjective well-being is composed of two separate, albeit related, components: affect and cognitive evaluation ( Diener, 1994 ). Affect refers to short-lived emotional components of well-being, while life satisfaction is an example of an individual’s longer-lasting cognitive appraisal of