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Ethan Edward Hull, Dana L. Rofey, Robert J. Robertson, Elizabeth F. Nagle, Amy D. Otto and Deborah J. Aaron

Background:

Physical activity (PA) tends to decrease from adolescence to young adulthood, and factors that have been proposed to contribute to this decrease are life transitions. The focus of this study is to examine life transitions, such as marriage and parenthood, and the impact they may have on the physical activity levels of young adults.

Methods:

This 2-year prospective analysis assessed physical activity (hrs/wk) and sociodemo-graphics in young adults (n = 638, 48% male, 15% nonwhite, 24 ± 1.1 years old) via questionnaire. PA data were normalized through log transformations and examined using ANCOVAs, controlling for appropriate covariates.

Results:

ANCOVA results showed that becoming married did not significantly change PA compared with individuals who stayed single [F(1,338) = 0.38, P = .54, d = 0.06]. Conversely, PA was significantly lower [F(1,517) = 6.7, P = .01, d = 0.41] after having a child, compared with individuals who stayed childless.

Conclusions:

These results suggest that marriage does not impact PA in young adults, but having a child significantly decreases PA in parents, and may offer an optimal period of intervention.

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Richard Larouche, Louis Laurencelle, Roy J. Shephard and Francois Trudeau

Background:

Several studies have reported an age-related decline of physical activity (PA). We examined the impact of 4 important transitional periods—adolescence, the beginning of postsecondary education, entry into the labor market, and parenthood—on the PA of participants in the Trois-Rivières quasi-experimental study.

Methods:

In 2008, 44 women and 42 men aged 44.0 ± 1.2 years were given a semistructured interview; the frequency and duration of physical activities were examined during each of these transition periods. Subjects had been assigned to either an experimental program [5 h of weekly physical education (PE) from Grades 1 to 6] or the standard curriculum (40 min of weekly PE) throughout primary school.

Results:

The percentage of individuals undertaking ≥ 5 h of PA per week decreased from 70.4% to 17.0% between adolescence and midlife. The largest decline occurred on entering the labor market (from 55.9% to 23.4%). At midlife, there were no significant differences of PA level between experimental and control groups. Men were more active than women at each transition except for parenthood.

Conclusions:

Our results highlight a progressive nonlinear decline of PA involvement in both groups. Promotion initiatives should target these periods to prevent the decline of PA.

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Darren D. Kelly and Marlene A. Dixon

Despite excellent performance on the field and years of academic and social attention, National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Division I African American male student-athletes continue to struggle to have an optimal and well-rounded college experience at predominantly White institutions of higher education. In particular, the first 2 years of college represent a difficult period during which this group would benefit from new ideas to support their multiple transitions. Mentoring, and more specifically constellation mentoring, provides great promise for aiding in the transition and success of this group (Kram, 1985). Mentoring, like other organizational transition management tools, focuses on helping people navigate a transition into a new setting (Noe, Hollenbeck, Gerhart, & Wright, 2010). However, constellation mentoring can be simultaneously broad (in terms of range of needs addressed) and specifically tailored to individual needs. This study seeks to establish a framework for how mentoring may provide a valuable tool for addressing the needs of African American male student-athletes as they transition into the college sport, social, and academic atmosphere.

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Ethan E. Hull, Jeannette M. Garcia, Angela M. Kolen and Robert J. Robertson

Background:

New parents have to adjust to less sleep, less free time, and more responsibility as a result of having a child. The purpose of this study was to examine how having a child impacts the physical activity (PA) beliefs and behaviors of new parents over a 2- to 3-year time period.

Methods:

Participants included 49 men and women (31% men, 96% white) who did not have a child at baseline (26.3 ± 1.1 years old) but did have a child at the time of follow-up (28.9 ± 1.7 years old). The child’s mean age at follow-up was 12 ± 7 months old. PA was measured via questionnaire at baseline and again at follow-up. Interviews regarding PA occurred at follow-up.

Results:

PA significantly decreased in parents across the time period (P < .001), and parents attributed this decrease to having a child and being pregnant. Parents mentioned they lack time, energy, and motivation for PA as a result of caring for a new child. Parents who maintained their activity level stated they prioritized PA and chose activities they enjoyed.

Conclusion:

These results show that although activity levels decrease in individuals who have a child, PA in new parents may be a function of priority, intensity, and enjoyment.

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Katie Kilty

The purpose of this article is to review the challenges that women coaches must overcome and to discuss coach education strategies for facilitating the development of women coaches. Changes in representation of women in positions of leadership in sport have created a social context in which the experience of female coaches is referenced from a predominantly male perspective. As such, recurring issues elicited by attendees at the USOC/NCAA sponsored Women in Coaching Conferences are discussed. Coach education strategies are addressed in three main areas: (a) the continuation of women and sport programs, (b) restructuring the work environment to recognize and value relational work skills, and (c) relational mentoring models to navigate career and life transitions and advocate for change.

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Jen D. Wong, Julie S. Son, Stephanie T. West, Jill J. Naar and Toni Liechty

addition to studies that investigated physical activity behaviors as a lifelong process, studies that employed the life course perspective tend to focus on the influences of life transitions, such as becoming a parent or retirement, in shaping the stability of physical activity participation in late

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Karin A. Pfeiffer and Michael J. Wierenga

periods surrounding life transitions should be examined . Life transitions are time periods when behavior change can be more pronounced ( Bell & Lee, 2005 ). The impact of various correlates of PA may be different as a result of the transitions, which could be true for sport participation. Time periods

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Kim Gammage, Rachel Arnold, Nicole Bolter, Lori Dithurbide, Karl Erickson, Blair Evans, Larkin Lamarche, Sean Locke, Eric Martin and Kathleen Wilson

: Exercise adherence outcomes. Health Psychology , 37 , 451–461. doi: 10.1037/hea0000615 Journal website: http://www.apa.org/pubs/journals/hea/ Author website: http://kin.educ.ubc.ca/person/mark-beauchamp/ Thinking Fast and Slow: Older Adolescents’ Thoughts About Physical Activity The life transition

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Amy Rauer and Lyndsey M. Hornbuckle

Health, 13 , 1197 – 1207 . PubMed ID: 24350889 doi:10.1186/1471-2458-13-1197 10.1186/1471-2458-13-1197 Brown , W.J. , & Trost , S.G. ( 2003 ). Life transitions and changing physical activity patterns in young women . American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 25 ( 2 ), 140 – 143 . PubMed ID

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Oliver W.A. Wilson, Scott Graupensperger, M. Blair Evans and Melissa Bopp

food groups (eg, meat, dairy, fiber, etc) could also be assessed. Examining the relationship between PA and dietary behaviors during important life transitions, such as the transition from secondary school to higher education, also represents an opportunity to understand how changes in health behaviors