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Adrián Hernández-Vicente, Alejandro Santos-Lozano, Carmen Mayolas-Pi, Gabriel Rodríguez-Romo, Helios Pareja-Galeano, Natalia Bustamante, Eva M. Gómez-Trullén, Alejandro Lucia, and Nuria Garatachea

trait, some authors say that nongenetic factors, including diet, PA, health habits, and psychosocial factors contribute approximately 50% of the variability in human lifespan with another 25% explained by genetic differences ( Rea, Dellet, & Mills, 2016 ). In our study, both groups were more active

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Karl M. Newell and Steven Morrison

This paper presents a framework for an evolving dynamical landscape of movement forms and their stability over the lifespan. It is proposed that the complexity and dimensionality of movement forms can expand and contract on a number of growth/decay time scales of change including those of adaptation, development, and learning. The expansion and contraction is reflected in: (1) the range of potential movement forms of the individual in developmental time; and (2) the dimensionality and complexity of any single movement form at a moment of observation given the confluence of individual, environmental, and task constraints. It is postulated that practice, exercise, and fatigue also coalesce to change the time scales of complexity and dimension of movement forms.

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Sara M. Scharoun, David A. Gonzalez, Eric A. Roy, and Pamela J. Bryden

a stimulus compared with the other three movement contexts. The 7-year-olds also displayed more ESC in pantomime without a stimulus; however, this was only in comparison with pantomime with image and glass as a guide. Observing the opposite end of the lifespan, patterns were opposite that of young

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Charles H. Hillman, Kirk I. Erickson, and Bradley D. Hatfield

The past two decades have uncovered the beneficial relation of physical activity and other health behaviors on brain and cognition, with the majority of data emerging from older adult populations. More recently, a similar research thread has emerged in school-aged children, which offers insight into the relation of physical activity to scholastic performance, providing a real-world application of the benefits observed in the laboratory. Technological advances have similarly furthered our understanding of physical activity effects on cognitive and brain health. Given this emerging body of work, this manuscript reviews the basic findings within the field, but more importantly suggests triggers or signals from the emerging literature that will shape the field in the near future. The overall goal of this body of research is to increase cognitive and brain health to promote effective functioning of individuals across the lifespan.

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Janet S. Dufek, John A. Mercer, Kaori Teramoto, Brent C. Mangus, and Julia A. Freedman

Context:

Impact is known to cause injury during running, while variability is thought to promote healthy performance.

Objective:

Quantify contributions of the lower extremity and back and the variability of impact generation among (1) prepubescent girls (Grp 1), (2) normally menstruating women (Grp 2), and (3) postmenopausal women (Grp 3) to address possible lifespan changes during running.

Design:

A mixed model experiment.

Setting:

Biomechanics Laboratory.

Participants:

31 healthy females owing membership to Grp1, Grp 2, or Grp 3.

Intervention:

Participants ran on a treadmill at their preferred speed (45 s) and at a speed 10% faster (45 s) while instrumented with uniaxial accelerometers.

Main Outcome Measures:

Lower extremity attenuation, back attenuation and variability of peak impact acceleration values.

Results:

Lower extremity attenuation and variability were greatest for Grp 1 while impact variability was least for Grp 2.

Conclusion:

Lifespan phases appear to affect impact attenuation strategies and variability of impact during running for females.

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Tania S. Flink and Alexandra N. Iorio

This study examined changes in manual asymmetry across the lifespan using the Purdue pegboard protocol. One hundred and four right-handed individuals were recruited and separated by age decade. Individuals placed pegs into holes as fast as possible in 30 s using the right hand, left hand, and both hands simultaneously. Movements with the right hand were significantly faster than the left hand and for both hands for all age groups. The number of pegs successfully inserted into the holes significantly declined in the sixth decade, and this result was observed for both the right and left hands. No significant differences between the decades were observed with respect to the computed laterality quotient; thus, declines in manual asymmetry with age were not observed. It is suggested that the performance speed declines with age are likely to be due to central factors. Better performance of the right versus left hand across the lifespan supports the right hemi-aging model, and may also be due to practice, the differential roles of the right versus the left hand, and the task itself.

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Pedro Silva, Luisa Aires, Rute Marina Santos, Susana Vale, Greg Welk, and Jorge Mota

Background:

The purpose of the study is to evaluate age and gender differences in objectively measured levels of physical activity (PA) in a large and diverse sample of residents from an urban area in Porto, Portugal.

Methods:

Participants included 822 residents, 334 males (41%), and 488 females (59%), aged 6 to 90 years. GT1M accelerometer was used to assess daily PA over 7 consecutive days, and the measurement was from October (2007) to June (2008).

Results:

Males were more active than females. This difference was attenuated in the 2 oldest age groups (40−59 and 60+ yrs). An accentuated declined in all PA variables occurred between the youngster group (6−11 yrs) and adolescents group (12−19 yrs). Surprisingly, young adults (20−39 yrs) engaged in more moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA) than adolescents. Further, females also had higher MVPA in the fourth group (40−59 yrs) compared with the second group (12−19 yrs). Males had higher compliance rates of PA guidelines than females regardless the age group considered. Adolescents had very low compliance rates (females = 18.18%; males = 33.50%).

Conclusions:

Porto metropolitan area residents had low rates of compliance with current PA guidelines. A low level of PA in Porto adolescents is a matter of concern and suggests that interventions are needed.