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Marijke Hopman-Rock, Floris W. Kraaimaat and Johannes W.J. Bijlsma

The relationship between the frequency (chronic, episodic, and sporadic) of arthritic pain in the hip and/or knee, other illness-related variables, physical disability, and a physically active lifestyle was analyzed in community-living subjects aged 55 to 74 years (N = 306). We tested the hypothesis that a physically active lifestyle is a mediating variable in the relationship between pain frequency and physical disability. Physical activity was measured with a structured interview method, and physical disability was measured with the Sickness Impact Profile. A stepwise regression model with demographic data, pain frequency, illness-related variables (such as radiological osteoarthritis and pain severity), and lifestyle variables explained 45% of the variance in physical disability; lifestyle variables explained 7% of the variance in physical disability. Our results support the hypothesis that a physically active lifestyle (in particular, sport activity) is a mediator in the relation between the frequency of pain and physical disability.

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Marquis Hawkins, Deirdre K. Tobias, Hala B. Alessa, Andrea K. Chomistek, Junaidah B. Barnett, Walter C. Willett and Susan E. Hankinson

relationships can inform intervention approaches. Therefore, we evaluated the association of PA intensity and type, using objective and self-reported measures of PA, with circulating sex hormones in premenopausal and postmenopausal women. Methods Study Population The Women’s Lifestyle Validation Study is an

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Waneen W. Spirduso

Maintaining health and postponing chronic disease are assuming a higher priority in our aging society. It is therefore more critical than ever to understand the specific contribution that exercise makes toward the achievement of independent and healthy living for as many individuals as possible. Scientists have already shown that exercise plays an important role in maintaining cardiovascular health, muscular strength and endurance, balance, flexibility, and neuromuscular coordination. What remains for researchers of the future is to clarify the relationships among fitness, cognition, emotional health, and well-being in the elderly. More important, the greatest challenge for future researchers is to determine how an adult population that recognizes the benefits of exercise but continues to be sedentary can be transformed into a population that incorporates an adequate level of physical activity into its lifestyle.

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Gyöngyi Szabó Földesi

This paper is an analysis of the presence and the consequences of ageism and sexism in contemporary sport relative to Hungarian women. The major purposes are: (1) to consider some theoretical concerns about research on physical activity in the later years; (2) to examine how the double disadvantage of being old and female influences life-styles in connection with sport; (3) to review research relative to how and why sport is or is not an integral part of life-style of the 50+ age group of women in Hungary; (4) to present results of research carried out recently in Hungary on elderly people’s sport participation and their judgments of their own physical activity. Findings from a variety of studies were discussed, including 1987 and 1997 studies of the Budapest older population. Interview and questionnaire techniques were used to collect data relative to participation and interpretation of sport and physical activity. According to the findings, of the 1997 study, only 19% of women over 70 reported their health as satisfactory, compared with 5.6 % of the men. Lasting diseases were more frequent among women than among men (42.3 % versus 34.1 %). 38.8 % of females and 27.8 % of males aged 70-74 years cannot walk a distance of 2 kilometers; 47.1 % of females and 31.8 % of males in the same age groups are not able to ascend 10 stairsteps without taking a rest. Approximately 5 % of males over 60 and approximately 4% of females over 55 were physically active. It appears to the great majority of Hungarian older women that they are losers of the recent system change: because of growing poverty their life-chances have been worsening, their opportunities for choosing the components of their life-styles-including physical activity have narrowed and social distances within and between the individual age cohorts have increased, including sport participation. There is a need for rethinking attitudes and for increasing awareness of how physical fitness could keep Hungarians in all ages healthier, more independent and more optimistic.

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Aline Mendes Gerage, Tânia Rosane Bertoldo Benedetti, Raphael Mendes Ritti-Dias, Ana Célia Oliveira dos Santos, Bruna Cadengue Coêlho de Souza and Fábio Araujo Almeida

risk factors for the occurrence and prognosis of hypertension, 2 lifestyle changes are recommended for patients with hypertension. 1 – 3 Despite this, very few adults with hypertension achieve healthy eating (10%) 4 and physical activity (30%) 5 , 6 recommendations. Lifestyle change programs based

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Ítalo R. Lemes, Rômulo A. Fernandes, Bruna C. Turi-Lynch, Jamile S. Codogno, Luana C. de Morais, Kelly A.K. Koyama and Henrique L. Monteiro

). Changes in the endocrine system, lifestyle, and body composition are expected to occur with age. 30 Decreased sex hormones may lead to central fat redistribution, resulting in an increase in abdominal adipose tissue. 31 , 32 In addition, it is well established that abdominal adiposity plays an important

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Martin D. Hoffman, Linjun Chen and Eswar Krishnan

Background:

Little is known about the sociodemographics and lifestyle behaviors of ultramarathon runners, and the effects of these characteristics on body weight and body mass index (BMI).

Methods:

We cross-sectionally analyzed baseline data of 1212 ultramarathoners on sociodemographics, lifestyle behaviors and BMI from the initial 12-month enrollment period in a longitudinal observational study.

Results:

The ultramarathoners were mostly middle-aged men who were more educated, more likely to be in a stable relationship, and more likely to use over-the-counter vitamins/supplements than the general population. They appear to gain less body weight with advancing age than the general population. Factors with the greatest effect on current BMI were BMI at 25 years of age and sex, which explained 48% and 3% of the variance. Negligible, but statistically significant direct relationships, with BMI were observed for age, work hours per week, television watching hours per week, and composite fat consumption frequency score. Negligible, but statistically significant inverse relationships, with BMI were observed for running distance during the prior year, and composite fruit and vegetable consumption frequency score.

Conclusions:

While lifestyle decisions were found to impact BMI within this group of ultramarathoners, BMI at age 25 was the strongest predictor of current BMI.

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Lisa Price, Katrina Wyatt, Jenny Lloyd, Charles Abraham, Siobhan Creanor, Sarah Dean and Melvyn Hillsdon

-time criteria. Second, the study aimed to examine whether compliance with follow-up measures differed by group allocation (ie, intervention vs control) and whether compliance was associated with gender. Methods Participants Data from this study were obtained as part of the Healthy Lifestyles Programme (HeLP), a

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Robert H. Friis, Wendy L. Nomura, Christine X. Ma and James H. Swan

Walking for exercise might counteract the effects of a sedentary lifestyle. We examined the demographic and health-related predictors of walking 1 mile per week or more among the elderly. Data were from the 1984 Longitudinal Study of Aging. Participants were 7,527 adults age 70 years or older. Demographic factors related to walking were younger age, college-level education, being unmarried, and higher income. Health-related variables associated with walking included positive self-perception of health, internal health locus of control, and absence of activity limitations. The prevalence of regular walking for exercise was low in the study population (38% and 26% for men and women, respectively). Interventions that increase the internal health locus of control might be effective in increasing walking among the elderly.

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Doeschka A. Ferro, Jan Berend Deijen, Lando L. Koppes, Willem van Mechelen, Jos W. Twisk and Madeleine L. Drent

Background:

Physical activity and fitness in adolescence may improve cognition in adulthood by increasing insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I).

Methods:

As part of the Amsterdam Growth and Health Longitudinal Study, following subjects from age 13 to 42 years, physical activity and fitness of 303 subjects were assessed annually between the ages 13 to 16. At mean age 36, physical activity, fitness and IGF-I were measured. At mean age 42, IGF-I and cognitive factors (ie, executive functioning and visual-spatial memory) were measured. The linear regression of physical activity and fitness in adolescence and IGF-I in adulthood on cognitive scores in adulthood was investigated.

Results:

A significant association was found in males between physical activity in adolescence and executive function in adulthood (Spatial Working Memory Between Errors: β = –.18, B = –.13, 95% CI = –.259 to –.010; Spatial Working Memory Strategy: β = –.20, B = –.08, 95% CI = –.147 to –.014). No association between physical activity or fitness in adolescence and cognitive function in adulthood was found in females, nor any intermediate role for IGF-I in either sex.

Conclusions:

The results suggest a stimulating effect of adolescent physical activity in males on executive functions in adulthood, emphasizing the importance of an active lifestyle among adolescent males.