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William Roth Smith

featured in mass media and often occurring outside of institutional or team settings, individualized action sports—often termed “lifestyle sports” ( Wheaton, 2010 , 2013 ), such as skateboarding, surfing, bicycle motor cross (BMX), parkour, or rock climbing, were not immune to COVID-19’s effects. Stay

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Hamid Najafipour, Masoomeh Kahnooji, Mohammad Reza Baneshi, Mahboobeh Yeganeh, Milad Ahmadi Gohari, Mitra Shadkam Farokhi and Ali Mirzazadeh

According to the World Health Organization report, cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) account for almost 30% of overall deaths all around the world. 1 About 80% of deaths in developing countries are a result of CVDs, which occur mostly due to change of lifestyle, increase of urbanism, and lack of

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Marijke Hopman-Rock, Floris W. Kraaimaat and Johannes W.J. Bijlsma

The relationship between the frequency (chronic, episodic, and sporadic) of arthritic pain in the hip and/or knee, other illness-related variables, physical disability, and a physically active lifestyle was analyzed in community-living subjects aged 55 to 74 years (N = 306). We tested the hypothesis that a physically active lifestyle is a mediating variable in the relationship between pain frequency and physical disability. Physical activity was measured with a structured interview method, and physical disability was measured with the Sickness Impact Profile. A stepwise regression model with demographic data, pain frequency, illness-related variables (such as radiological osteoarthritis and pain severity), and lifestyle variables explained 45% of the variance in physical disability; lifestyle variables explained 7% of the variance in physical disability. Our results support the hypothesis that a physically active lifestyle (in particular, sport activity) is a mediator in the relation between the frequency of pain and physical disability.

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Assumpta Ensenyat, Gemma Espigares-Tribo, Leonardo Machado-Da-Silva, Xenia Sinfreu-Bergués and Alfonso Blanco

Metabolic syndrome (MetS), a cluster of risk factors comprising abdominal obesity, impaired glucose tolerance, hypertension, and dyslipidemia, has a strong negative impact on cardiovascular health. Epidemiological evidence indicates that undesirable lifestyle changes can somewhat explain the

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Waneen W. Spirduso

Maintaining health and postponing chronic disease are assuming a higher priority in our aging society. It is therefore more critical than ever to understand the specific contribution that exercise makes toward the achievement of independent and healthy living for as many individuals as possible. Scientists have already shown that exercise plays an important role in maintaining cardiovascular health, muscular strength and endurance, balance, flexibility, and neuromuscular coordination. What remains for researchers of the future is to clarify the relationships among fitness, cognition, emotional health, and well-being in the elderly. More important, the greatest challenge for future researchers is to determine how an adult population that recognizes the benefits of exercise but continues to be sedentary can be transformed into a population that incorporates an adequate level of physical activity into its lifestyle.

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Marquis Hawkins, Deirdre K. Tobias, Hala B. Alessa, Andrea K. Chomistek, Junaidah B. Barnett, Walter C. Willett and Susan E. Hankinson

relationships can inform intervention approaches. Therefore, we evaluated the association of PA intensity and type, using objective and self-reported measures of PA, with circulating sex hormones in premenopausal and postmenopausal women. Methods Study Population The Women’s Lifestyle Validation Study is an

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Ray M. Merrill

obesity) in the United States and assess their association with LTPI. The study considers the simultaneous effect of environmental, demographic, and lifestyle factors on LTPI. The study also assesses whether associations differ between males and females, with direct, indirect, and modifying effects

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Aline Mendes Gerage, Tânia Rosane Bertoldo Benedetti, Raphael Mendes Ritti-Dias, Ana Célia Oliveira dos Santos, Bruna Cadengue Coêlho de Souza and Fábio Araujo Almeida

risk factors for the occurrence and prognosis of hypertension, 2 lifestyle changes are recommended for patients with hypertension. 1 – 3 Despite this, very few adults with hypertension achieve healthy eating (10%) 4 and physical activity (30%) 5 , 6 recommendations. Lifestyle change programs based

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Alberto Grao-Cruces, Julio Conde-Caveda, Magdalena Cuenca-García, Román Nuviala, Alejandro Pérez-Bey, Fátima Martín-Acosta and José Castro-Piñero

The physical, social, and mental benefits of a physically active lifestyle during childhood are well documented. 1 Declines in physical activity (PA) during past decades have been identified as a cause of the epidemic of pediatric obesity in the developed world. 2 Thus, monitoring PA levels in

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Gyöngyi Szabó Földesi

This paper is an analysis of the presence and the consequences of ageism and sexism in contemporary sport relative to Hungarian women. The major purposes are: (1) to consider some theoretical concerns about research on physical activity in the later years; (2) to examine how the double disadvantage of being old and female influences life-styles in connection with sport; (3) to review research relative to how and why sport is or is not an integral part of life-style of the 50+ age group of women in Hungary; (4) to present results of research carried out recently in Hungary on elderly people’s sport participation and their judgments of their own physical activity. Findings from a variety of studies were discussed, including 1987 and 1997 studies of the Budapest older population. Interview and questionnaire techniques were used to collect data relative to participation and interpretation of sport and physical activity. According to the findings, of the 1997 study, only 19% of women over 70 reported their health as satisfactory, compared with 5.6 % of the men. Lasting diseases were more frequent among women than among men (42.3 % versus 34.1 %). 38.8 % of females and 27.8 % of males aged 70-74 years cannot walk a distance of 2 kilometers; 47.1 % of females and 31.8 % of males in the same age groups are not able to ascend 10 stairsteps without taking a rest. Approximately 5 % of males over 60 and approximately 4% of females over 55 were physically active. It appears to the great majority of Hungarian older women that they are losers of the recent system change: because of growing poverty their life-chances have been worsening, their opportunities for choosing the components of their life-styles-including physical activity have narrowed and social distances within and between the individual age cohorts have increased, including sport participation. There is a need for rethinking attitudes and for increasing awareness of how physical fitness could keep Hungarians in all ages healthier, more independent and more optimistic.