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Christopher A. Bailey, Maxana Weiss and Julie N. Côté

remain to be determined. The purpose of this study was to determine the age-specific effect of performing a N/S fatiguing task on EMG variability and functional connectivity in a reach-and-lift task. We hypothesized that, with fatigue, increases in muscle activation variability would be higher with age

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Kazuo Funato, Akifumi Matsuo and Tetsuo Fukunaga

In order to evaluate how mechanical power relates to athletic performance in weight lifting, specific movement power (SMP) was investigated using a newly developed dynamometer. Four simulated pull movements in weight lifting were measured: weight lifting pull (WL), second pull, back strength pull, and shoulder shrug pull. Subjects included 12 elite (EL) and 14 district (DI) level Japanese weight lifters. Athletic performance was defined as the highest total combined weight (snatch plus clean and jerk) lifted during competition. The highest SMP was observed in the WL. Force, velocity, and power relations were derived from the WL, showing higher velocity and power values in EL than DI at an identical force level. SMP in WL was found to be significantly correlated to athletic performance. SMP measured as a simulated pull movement in weight lifting employing the present dynamometer appears useful in evaluating athletic performance. Furthermore, this dynamometer provides force-velocity relationships during multiarticular explosive movements.

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Ryan B. Graham, Catherine L.W. Smallman, Erin M. Sadler and Joan M. Stevenson

It has been suggested that interjoint coordination may serve to reduce joint stress and muscular demand and to maintain balance during dynamic lifting tasks, thus having implications for safe lifting practices. Before recommending the use of an on-body ergonomic aid, the Personal Lift-Assist Device (PLAD), it is important to determine any effects this device may have on interjoint coordination. Principal component analyses were applied to relative phase angle waveforms, defining the hip–knee and lumbar spine–hip coordination of 15 males and 15 females during a repetitive lifting task. When wearing the PLAD, users lifted with more synchronous hip–knee and lumbar spine–hip coordination patterns (P < .01). Furthermore, increases in load caused less synchronized interjoint coordination at both the hip–knee and lumbar spine–hip during the up and down phases of the lift (P < .01) for all conditions. No significant main effects of sex or significant interactions were observed on any of the outcome variables.

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Mont Hubbard and Christy D. Bergman

The theory of crossflow aerodynamics is used to estimate the effect of thrower-induced vibrations on javelin mean lift and drag. Vibrations of all modes increase both lift and drag from the vibration-free condition. Percentage in-creases in lift and drag are largest at small mean angles of attack, large vibrational amplitudes, and large relative wind speeds. Thus the consequences of vibration effects on aerodynamics may be most significant for elite throwers.

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Ross H. Sanders

The main purpose of this study was to develop a model for calculating forces produced by a swimmer’s hand, with the thumb adducted, accelerating in the direction of flow. The model included coefficients to account for the velocity and acceleration of the hand. These coefficients were designed to calculate forces in the direction opposite the motion (drag) and two components of lift orthogonal to the direction of motion. To determine the coefficients, three-dimensional forces acting on a resin cast of a swimmer’s hand were recorded while accelerating the hand from rest to 0.45 m · s−1 and 0.6 m · −1 in a towing tank. The hand orientation was varied throughout the entire range at 5° increments. Three-dimensional surfaces describing the magnitude of the coefficients as functions of pitch and sweepback angle were produced. It was found that acceleration coefficients as well as velocity coefficients are required for accurate modeling of the forces produced by the hand in swimming. The forces generated by the hand are greatest when pitch angles approach 90° due to the large contribution by the drag component. However, at pitch angles near 45° and sweepback angles near 45° and 135°, lift forces contribute substantially.

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Daniel A. Marinho, António J. Silva, Victor M. Reis, Tiago M. Barbosa, João P. Vilas-Boas, Francisco B. Alves, Leandro Machado and Abel I. Rouboa

The purpose of this study was to analyze the hydrodynamic characteristics of a realistic model of an elite swimmer hand/forearm using three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics techniques. A three-dimensional domain was designed to simulate the fluid flow around a swimmer hand and forearm model in different orientations (0°, 45°, and 90° for the three axes Ox, Oy and Oz). The hand/forearm model was obtained through computerized tomography scans. Steady-state analyses were performed using the commercial code Fluent. The drag coefficient presented higher values than the lift coefficient for all model orientations. The drag coefficient of the hand/forearm model increased with the angle of attack, with the maximum value of the force coefficient corresponding to an angle of attack of 90°. The drag coefficient obtained the highest value at an orientation of the hand plane in which the model was directly perpendicular to the direction of the flow. An important contribution of the lift coefficient was observed at an angle of attack of 45°, which could have an important role in the overall propulsive force production of the hand and forearm in swimming phases, when the angle of attack is near 45°.

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Yung-Hui Lee, Chin-Yang Huwang and Yang-Hwei Tsuang

The biomechanical characteristics of 13 snatch lifts performed by 4 elite athletes were analyzed. Electromyographic data, ground reaction force index (GRFI), knee angular velocities, barbell velocities, and lifting time were obtained 0.2 s before the lift, for the first pulling phase (FP), and for the second pulling phase (SP). The preactivation, normalized electromyographic values correlated negatively with GRFI (p < .01). In the FP and SP, all of the parameters correlated positively with each other except lifting time. GRFI in the FP also correlated positively with GRFI, maximum knee angular velocities, and maximum barbell velocities of the SP (p < .01). In the SP, the ground reaction force reached its maximum first, followed by knee angular velocity and then barbell velocity. Barbell velocity reached its maximum before the knee and the hip joint were fully extended. When the correlation of parameters between the consecutive phases of snatch weight lifting was analyzed, it was demonstrated that the preactivation of trunk and leg muscles is important in the activation of the reflectory system in order to fully utilize the forces for generating lifting speed in the pulling phase.

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Ross H. Sanders

A boost is a skill used in water polo to raise the body for the purpose of shooting for goal or passing, or defending against these. The purpose of this study was to investigate kinematic variables contributing to height achieved in a boost. The kinematics of the vertex, shoulders, and lower limbs of 16 players ranging in ability from novice to elite were quantified using three-dimensional videographic techniques. Maximum height of the vertex with respect to water level ranged from 0.50 m to 0.90 m. A multiple regression model comprising the squared maximum resultant foot speed, range of knee joint extension, and initial trunk angle with respect to the horizontal accounted for 74% of the variance in height achieved. Anteroposterior and medio-lateral motions assisted in maintaining foot speed throughout the period of knee extension. The foot orientations and direction of foot motion of the elite players suggested that effective technique involves the use of both drag and lift forces.

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Ross H. Sanders

The purpose of this study was to investigate technique in the eggbeater kick and to identity factors contributing to height that can be maintained. The kinematics of the lower limbs of 12 players ranging in ability from novice to elite were quantified using three-dimensional videographic techniques. Mean height of the vertex of the head with respect to water level was used as the measure of performance. These heights ranged from 0.22 m to 0.42 m. The mean of the squared fool velocity (r = .85, p < .01), the percent contribution of the vertical and anteroposterior components of foot velocity (r = −.72 and r = .72, respectively, p < .05) were strongly related to height. There were also substantial contributions due to mediolateral motion by all players, but this was not statistically related to height. Pitch angles were generally small throughout the kick cycle. Elite players maximized me period of positive pitch by appropriate use of ankle dorsi-flexion and plantar-flexion and eversion and inversion. The foot orientadons and flow directions of the elite players suggested that effective technique involved sculling actions to utilize lift forces.

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Thomas W. Balon, Jeffrey F. Horowitz and Karen M. Fitzsimmons

Bodybuilders have used different carbohydrate loading regimens in conjunction with resistance exercise prior to competition in the belief that this would result in increased muscle size. To investigate this possibility, muscle girth measurements were obtained from nine weight-trained males before and after a control (standard isocaloric diet) and an experimental trial (carbohydrate loading). The latter regimen consisted of 3 days of intense weight-lifting while the subjects ingested a diet of 10% carbohydrate (CHO), 57% fat (F), and 33% protein (P), followed by 3 days of light weight-lifting and a day of rest while ingesting a diet of 80% CHO, 5% F, and 15% P. The control trial consisted of an identical weight-lifting regimen while subjects ingested an isocaloric (45 kcal/kg BWIday) diet. Body weight and girths (forearm, upper arm, chest, thigh, waist, and calf) were obtained before and after each trial in a relaxed and flexed state. The results indicated that an exercise/carbohydrate loading regimen had no significant effect on muscle girth as compared to the control trial. It is concluded that CHO loading has no additional advantage to enhancing muscle girth in bodybuilders over weight-lifting alone.