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Louis M. Ferreira, Graham J.W. King, and James A. Johnson

Techniques have evolved for quantifying human tendon and ligament forces in the lower extremity 1 – 4 ; however, similar systems for the upper extremity are not well described. Friden et al described a technique for measuring tension in the brachioradialis muscle after tendon transfer 5 ; however

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Marc R. Safran, Christopher D. Harner, Jorge L. Giraldo, Scott M. Lephart, Paul A. Borsa, and Freddie H. Fu

Proprioceptive deficits have been demonstrated following anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) disruption, but little research exists evaluating proprioception in the posterior cruciate ligament (PCL)-deficient and/or -reconstructed knee. We have studied proprioception in PCL-deficient and PCL-reconstructed knees. The following summarizes our protocol and results of proprioceptive testing of kinesthesia and joint position sense in participants with isolated PCL injuries and those who underwent PCL reconstruction. We studied 18 participants with isolated raptures of the PCL and 10 participants who underwent PCL reconstruction. Proprioception was evaluated by two tests: the threshold to detect passive motion (TTDPM) and the ability to passively reproduce passive positioning (RPP). These assess kinesthesia and joint position sense, respectively. We have shown that isolated PCL deficiency in the human knee does result in reduced kinesthesia and enhanced joint position sense. Thus, the proprioceptive mechanoreceptors in the PCL do appear to have some function. We further found that PCL reconstruction significantly improved kinesthesia at 45° of knee flexion, while 110° was not significantly different between the involved and uninvolved knee in both studies.

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Britton W. Brewer, Allen E. Cornelius, Judy L. Van Raalte, and Howard Tennen

responses to sport injury, the main purpose of the current study was to examine longitudinally perceived adversarial growth after a single type of injury—a torn anterior cruciate ligament (ACL)—using a multidimensional measure of adversarial growth. Use of a longitudinal research design afforded the

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Renato Semadeni and Kai-Uwe Schmitt

Objective:

In this study a numerical model of a skier was developed to investigate the effect of different rehabilitation strategies after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) rupture.

Methods:

A computer model using a combined finite-element and multibody approach was established. The model includes a detailed representation of the knee structures, as well as all major leg muscles. Using this model, different strategies after ACL rupture were analyzed.

Results:

The benefit of muscle training to compensate for a loss of the ACL was shown. The results indicate that an increase of 10% of the physiological cross-sectional area has a positive effect without subjecting other knee structures to critical loads. Simulating the use of a hamstring graft indicated increasing knee loads. A patellar-tendon graft resulted in an increase of the stress on the lateral collateral ligament.

Conclusion:

Muscle training of both extensors and flexors is beneficial in medical rehabilitation of ACL-deficient and ACL-reconstructed knees.

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Steven M. Davi, Colleen K. Woxholdt, Justin L. Rush, Adam S. Lepley, and Lindsey K. Lepley

Unresolved alterations in quadriceps neural activity are common after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR) and clinically significant, as depressed neural activity interferes with recovery. 1 – 3 To estimate incomplete neural activation, traditionally, quadriceps activation failure has

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Xavier D. Thompson and Brianna DiAntonio

There are approximately 200,000 annual occurrences of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries in the United States. 1 , 2 Among athletes only, 44% returned to competitive sport postinjury 3 and, among youth athletes, the rate of subsequent ACL injury was 32% following reconstruction (ACL-R). 4

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Katherine A.J. Daniels, Eleanor Drake, Enda King, and Siobhán Strike

many field sports 1 and the task most commonly associated with noncontact anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) rupture. 2 – 4 ACL rupture is a common sporting knee injury, often requiring reconstruction surgery (ACL reconstruction, ACLR) and extensive rehabilitation. 5 , 6 In the period from 6 to 12

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Salman Nazary-Moghadam, Mahyar Salavati, Ali Esteki, Behnam Akhbari, Sohrab Keyhani, and Afsaneh Zeinalzadeh

Anterior cruciate ligament deficiency (ACLD) is a common sports-related injury commonly followed by knee instability. 1 . Previous studies have shown that mechanical and functional instability of the knee, impaired muscle recruitment, loss of force, muscle atrophy, and impaired neuromuscular

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Kristin D. Morgan

Over 250,000 individuals suffer an anterior cruciate ligament injury in the United States annually, resulting in reconstructive surgery and extensive rehabilitation with the purpose of restoring joint stability and muscle strength to previous functional levels. 1 – 3 The limb symmetry index, which

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Rafael Squillantini, Brielle Ringle, and Julie Cavallario

Clinical Scenario Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) sprains are one of the most common lower extremity injuries within physically active individuals. In the United States alone, approximately 250,000 ACL sprains occur annually. 1 ACL sprains are one of the most costly lower extremity injuries, due