Techniques have evolved for quantifying human tendon and ligament forces in the lower extremity 1 – 4 ; however, similar systems for the upper extremity are not well described. Friden et al described a technique for measuring tension in the brachioradialis muscle after tendon transfer 5 ; however
Louis M. Ferreira, Graham J.W. King and James A. Johnson
Marc R. Safran, Christopher D. Harner, Jorge L. Giraldo, Scott M. Lephart, Paul A. Borsa and Freddie H. Fu
Proprioceptive deficits have been demonstrated following anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) disruption, but little research exists evaluating proprioception in the posterior cruciate ligament (PCL)-deficient and/or -reconstructed knee. We have studied proprioception in PCL-deficient and PCL-reconstructed knees. The following summarizes our protocol and results of proprioceptive testing of kinesthesia and joint position sense in participants with isolated PCL injuries and those who underwent PCL reconstruction. We studied 18 participants with isolated raptures of the PCL and 10 participants who underwent PCL reconstruction. Proprioception was evaluated by two tests: the threshold to detect passive motion (TTDPM) and the ability to passively reproduce passive positioning (RPP). These assess kinesthesia and joint position sense, respectively. We have shown that isolated PCL deficiency in the human knee does result in reduced kinesthesia and enhanced joint position sense. Thus, the proprioceptive mechanoreceptors in the PCL do appear to have some function. We further found that PCL reconstruction significantly improved kinesthesia at 45° of knee flexion, while 110° was not significantly different between the involved and uninvolved knee in both studies.
Britton W. Brewer, Allen E. Cornelius, Judy L. Van Raalte and Howard Tennen
responses to sport injury, the main purpose of the current study was to examine longitudinally perceived adversarial growth after a single type of injury—a torn anterior cruciate ligament (ACL)—using a multidimensional measure of adversarial growth. Use of a longitudinal research design afforded the
Renato Semadeni and Kai-Uwe Schmitt
In this study a numerical model of a skier was developed to investigate the effect of different rehabilitation strategies after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) rupture.
A computer model using a combined finite-element and multibody approach was established. The model includes a detailed representation of the knee structures, as well as all major leg muscles. Using this model, different strategies after ACL rupture were analyzed.
The benefit of muscle training to compensate for a loss of the ACL was shown. The results indicate that an increase of 10% of the physiological cross-sectional area has a positive effect without subjecting other knee structures to critical loads. Simulating the use of a hamstring graft indicated increasing knee loads. A patellar-tendon graft resulted in an increase of the stress on the lateral collateral ligament.
Muscle training of both extensors and flexors is beneficial in medical rehabilitation of ACL-deficient and ACL-reconstructed knees.
Salman Nazary-Moghadam, Mahyar Salavati, Ali Esteki, Behnam Akhbari, Sohrab Keyhani and Afsaneh Zeinalzadeh
Anterior cruciate ligament deficiency (ACLD) is a common sports-related injury commonly followed by knee instability. 1 . Previous studies have shown that mechanical and functional instability of the knee, impaired muscle recruitment, loss of force, muscle atrophy, and impaired neuromuscular
Kristin D. Morgan
Over 250,000 individuals suffer an anterior cruciate ligament injury in the United States annually, resulting in reconstructive surgery and extensive rehabilitation with the purpose of restoring joint stability and muscle strength to previous functional levels. 1 – 3 The limb symmetry index, which
Shelby A. Peel, Lauren E. Schroeder, Zachary A. Sievert and Joshua T. Weinhandl
Noncontact anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries are traumatic injuries that often occur in sports where running, landing, and cutting are primary movements. 1 Nearly 70% of all ACL injuries are classified as noncontact ACL injuries, 2 meaning there is no direct contact to the knee at the
Rafael Squillantini, Brielle Ringle and Julie Cavallario
Clinical Scenario Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) sprains are one of the most common lower extremity injuries within physically active individuals. In the United States alone, approximately 250,000 ACL sprains occur annually. 1 ACL sprains are one of the most costly lower extremity injuries, due
Jonathon R. Staples, Kevin A. Schafer, Matthew V. Smith, John Motley, Mark Halstead, Andrew Blackman, Amanda Haas, Karen Steger-May, Matthew J. Matava, Rick W. Wright and Robert H. Brophy
The anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) is a commonly injured ligament in the body, often but not always requiring operative intervention. 1 The incidence of ACL reconstruction continues to rise, increasing by 20% over the last decade, with the most rapid increase occurring in patients aged between
Komeil Dashti Rostami, Aynollah Naderi and Abbey Thomas
Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury occurs frequently during athletic activity, precipitating numerous immediate and long-term consequences such as pain, disability, and ultimately joint degeneration. 1 In many individuals with ACL injury, altered movement patterns have been demonstrated