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Norihide Sugisaki, Kai Kobayashi, Hiroyasu Tsuchie and Hiroaki Kanehisa

” muscles that are prime movers of the task and responsible for its performance. Sprinting is a motor task in which the body mass of a runner is rapidly propelled forward by a propulsive force produced by lower-limb joint torques. Thus, identifying the key lower-limb muscles in sprinting is essential to

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Matthew D. DeLang, Mehdi Rouissi, Nicola L. Bragazzi, Karim Chamari and Paul A. Salamh

striving for tissue symmetry during strength training procedures is beneficial for an athlete, intralimb muscle asymmetry, particularly within-limb hamstring-to-quadriceps (H∶Q) ratio, 32 has been linked to increased injury risk. 9 , 29 – 31 A comprehensive report of between-limbs muscle characteristics

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Yaara Nadiv, Ricki Vachbroit, Amit Gefen, David Elad, Uri Zaretsky, Dani Moran, Pinchas Halpern and Anat Ratnovsky

The respiratory muscles may fatigue during prolonged exercises and thereby become a factor that limits extreme physical activity. The aim of the current study was to determine whether respiratory muscle fatigue imposes a limitation on extreme physical activity of well-trained young men. Electromyography (EMG) signals of respiratory (external intercostal and sternomastoid) and calf muscles (gastrocnemius) were measured (N = 8) during 1 hr of treadmill marching at a speed of 8 km/hr with and without a 15 kg backpack. The root mean square (RMS) and the mean power frequency of the EMG signals were evaluated for calculating fatigue indices. The EMG RMS revealed that the respiratory and calf muscles did not fatigue during the marching without a backpack load. The study did show, however, a significant rise in the EMG values when a backpack was carried with respect to the no-load condition (p < .05), which suggests that respiratory muscles should be trained in military recruits who are required to carry loaded backpacks while marching.

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Richard W. Bohannon and A. Williams Andrews

Overall muscle strength of extremities is often characterized by measurements from one or more selected actions. This study evaluated the legitimacy of that procedure. Measurements obtained by handheld dynamometry from 13 muscle actions of 156 apparently healthy individuals (50–79 years) were subjected to correlational analysis, principal-components analysis, and cluster analysis. The isometric strengths of all muscle actions correlated significantly with one another (r = .506–.965). Principal-components analysis without rotation showed that all tested actions loaded highly on overall limb muscle strength. Principal-componcnis analysis with varimax rotation revealed high loadings that were grouped by extremity (upper vs. lower). Ankle dorsiflexion strengths were exceptions. These findings, in conjunction with the cluster analysis, support using one or more actions to characterize isometric limb muscle strength among the elderly but suggest that muscle strength in an upper or lower extremity is best characterized by an action (e.g., elbow flexion) of that extremity.

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J.-M. John Wilson, D. Gordon E. Robertson and J. Peter Stothart

In an effort to seek further understanding of lower limb muscle function in the rowing movement, an electromyographic analysis was undertaken of rowers rowing on a Gjessing ergometer. A strain gauged transducer was inserted in the ergometer linkage between handle and flywheel to detect pulling force. Electrodes were placed on the following lower limb muscles: gluteus maximus, biceps femoris, rectus femoris, vastus lateralis, gastrocnemius, and tibialis anterior. Linear envelope electromyograms from each muscle and the force signals were sampled synchronously at 50 Hz. The results indicated that all six muscles were active from catch to finish of the drive phase. Biceps femoris, gluteus maximus, gastrocnemius, and vastus lateralis all began their activity at or just prior to catch and reached maximal excitation near peak force of the stroke. Rectus femoris and tibialis anterior activity began prior to the catch and reached maximal excitation subsequent to peak force. The coactivation of the five leg muscles, of which four were biarticular, included potentially antagonistic actions that would cancel each other’s effects. Clearly, however, other explanations must be considered. Both gastrocnemius and biceps femoris have been shown to act as knee extensors and may do so in the case of the rowing action. Furthermore, rectus femoris may act with unchanging length as a knee extensor by functioning as a rigid link between the pelvis and tibia. In this manner, energy created by the hip extensors is transferred across the knee joint via the isometrically contracting rectus femoris muscle.

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Ali Jalalvand and Mehrdad Anbarian

prevention . J Am Acad Orthop Surg . 2008 ; 16 ( 9 ): 497 – 505 . doi:10.5435/00124635-200808000-00011 18768707 10.5435/00124635-200808000-00011 30. Iida Y , Kanehisa H , Inaba Y , Nakazawa K . Activity modulations of trunk and lower limb muscles during impact-absorbing landing . J

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Cindy Y. Lin, Liang-Ching Tsai, Joel Press, Yupeng Ren, Sun G. Chung and Li-Qun Zhang


Gluteal-muscle strength has been identified as an important component of injury prevention and rehabilitation in several common knee injuries. However, many conventionally prescribed gluteal-strengthening exercises are not performed during dynamic weight-bearing activities, which is when most injuries occur.


To compare lower-limb muscle-activation patterns between conventional gluteal-strengthening exercises and off-axis elliptical exercises with motorized foot-plate perturbations designed to activate gluteal muscles during dynamic exercise.

Evidence Acquisition:

Twelve healthy volunteers (26.1 ± 4.7 y) participated in the study. They performed 3 conventional exercises (single-leg squat, forward lunge, and clamshell) and 3 elliptical exercises (regular, while resisting an adduction force, and while resisting an internal-rotation torque). Gluteus medius (GMed) and maximus (GMax), quadriceps, hamstrings, and gastrocnemius muscle activations during each exercise were recorded using surface electromyography (EMG) and normalized to maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC).

Evidence Synthesis:

Normalized GMed EMG was the highest during the adduction-resistance elliptical exercise (22.4% ± 14.8% MVIC), significantly greater than forward lunge (8.2% ± 3.8% MVIC) and regular elliptical (6.4% ± 2.5% MVIC) and similar to clamshell (19.1% ± 8.8% MVIC) and single-leg squat (18.4% ± 7.9% MVIC). Normalized GMax EMG during adduction-resistance (11.1% ± 7.6% MVIC) and internal-rotation-resistance elliptical (7.4% ± 3.8% MVIC) was significantly greater than regular elliptical (4.4% ± 2.4% MVIC) and was similar to conventional exercises. The single-leg squat required more muscle activation from the quadriceps and gastrocnemius than the elliptical exercises.


Off-axis elliptical exercise while resisting an adduction force or internal-rotation torque activates gluteal muscles dynamically while avoiding excessive quadriceps activation during a functional weight-bearing activity compared with conventional gluteal-strengthening exercises.

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Nicola Giovanelli, Paolo Taboga, Enrico Rejc, Bostjan Simunic, Guglielmo Antonutto and Stefano Lazzer


To investigate the effects of an uphill marathon (43 km, 3063-m elevation gain) on running mechanics and neuromuscular fatigue in lower-limb muscles.


Maximal mechanical power of lower limbs (MMP), temporal tensiomyographic (TMG) parameters, and muscle-belly displacement (D m) were determined in the vastus lateralis muscle before and after the competition in 18 runners (age 42.8 ± 9.9 y, body mass 70.1 ± 7.3 kg, maximal oxygen uptake 55.5 ± 7.5 mL · kg−1 · min−1). Contact (t c) and aerial (t a) times, step frequency (f), and running velocity (v) were measured at 3, 14, and 30 km and after the finish line (POST). Peak vertical ground-reaction force (Fmax), vertical displacement of the center of mass (Δz), leg-length change (ΔL), and vertical (k vert) and leg (k leg) stiffness were calculated.


MMP was inversely related with race time (r = –.56, P = .016), t c (r = –.61, P = .008), and Δz (r = –.57, P = .012) and directly related with Fmax (r = .59, P = .010), t a (r = .48, P = .040), and k vert (r = .51, P = .027). In the fastest subgroup (n = 9) the following parameters were lower in POST (P < .05) than at km 3: t a (–14.1% ± 17.8%), Fmax (–6.2% ± 6.4%), k vert (–17.5% ± 17.2%), and k leg (–11.4% ± 10.9%). The slowest subgroup (n = 9) showed changes (P < .05) at km 30 and POST in Fmax (–5.5% ± 4.9% and –5.3% ± 4.1%), t a (–20.5% ± 16.2% and –21.5% ± 14.4%), t c (5.5% ± 7.5% and 3.2% ± 5.2%), k vert (–14.0% ± 12.8% and –11.8% ± 10.0%), and k leg (–8.9% ± 11.5% and –11.9% ± 12%). TMG temporal parameters decreased in all runners (–27.35% ± 18.0%, P < .001), while D m increased (24.0% ± 35.0%, P = .005), showing lower-limb stiffness and higher muscle sensibility to the electrical stimulus.


Greater MMP was related with smaller changes in running mechanics induced by fatigue. Thus, lower-limb power training could improve running performance in uphill marathons.

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Isabelle Rogowski, David Rouffet, Frédéric Lambalot, Olivier Brosseau and Christophe Hautier

This study compared EMG activity of young tennis players’ muscles during forehand drives in two groups, GD—those able to raise by more than 150% the vertical velocity of racket-face at impact from flat to topspin forehand drives, and GND, those not able to increase their vertical velocity to the same extent. Upper limb joint angles, racket-face velocities, and average EMGrms values, were studied. At similar joint angles, a fall in horizontal velocity and a rise in racket-face vertical velocity from flat to topspin forehand drives were observed. Shoulder muscle activity rose from flat to topspin forehand drives in GND, but not for drives in GD. Forearm muscle activity reduced from flat to topspin forehand drives in GD, but muscle activation was similar in GND. The results show that radial deviation increased racket-face vertical velocity more at impact from the flat to topspin forehand drives than shoulder abduction.

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Jeroen Vrints, Erwin Koninckx, Marc Van Leemputte and Ilse Jonkers

Saddle position affects mechanical variables during submaximal cycling, but little is known about its effect on mechanical performance during maximal cycling. Therefore, this study relates saddle position to experimentally obtained maximal power output and theoretically calculated moment generating capacity of hip, knee and ankle muscles during isokinetic cycling. Ten subjects performed maximal cycling efforts (5 s at 100 rpm) at different saddle positions varying ± 2 cm around the in literature suggested optimal saddle position (109% of inner leg length), during which crank torque and maximal power output were determined. In a subgroup of 5 subjects, lower limb kinematics were additionally recorded during submaximal cycling at the different saddle positions. A decrease in maximal power output was found for lower saddle positions. Recorded changes in knee kinematics resulted in a decrease in moment generating capacity of biceps femoris, rectus femoris and vastus intermedius at the knee. No differences in muscle moment generating capacity were found at hip and ankle. Based on these results we conclude that lower saddle positions are less optimal to generate maximal power output, as it mainly affects knee joint kinematics, compromising mechanical performance of major muscle groups acting at the knee.