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Christopher Rumpf and Christoph Breuer

Sponsorship has enjoyed continuous growth relative to traditional forms of marketing communication over the last two decades ( International Events Group, 2016 ). Even though corporate investments into sponsorship programs are increasing, knowledge about the impact of sponsorship-linked

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Nikos Ntoumanis, Vassilis Barkoukis, Daniel F. Gucciardi and Derwin King Chung Chan

environment impacts on athletes’ intentions and decisions to engage or not in doping. The aim of this study is to propose and test a model prospectively linking different types of coach motivational style with doping intentions and doping behavior via a number of motivation and morality-related variables

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T. Bettina Cornwell and Dae Hee Kwak

Sponsorship of sport has developed over the past three decades to become a worldwide communications platform, a motivator for relationship building, and an omnipresent aspect of consumer experience for many. While it has been and continues to be a funding mechanism for sport, it is the evolution and metamorphosis of sponsorship-linked marketing that delivers endless research topics as sponsoring evolves dynamically.

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Alex V. Rowlands, Tatiana Plekhanova, Tom Yates, Evgeny M. Mirkes, Melanie Davies, Kamlesh Khunti and Charlotte L. Edwardson

reduced to four days to ensure compliance. Accelerometers The GENEActiv Original, Axivity AX3, and Actigraph GT9X Link (from herein: Axivity, GENEActiv, and ActiGraph) are triaxial accelerometers with a dynamic range of ±8  g , where g is equal to the Earth’s gravitational pull. All accelerometers were

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W. Steven Tucker, Charles W. Armstrong, Erik E. Swartz, Brian M. Campbell and James M. Rankin

Context:

Closed kinetic chain exercises are reported to provide a more functional rehabilitation outcome.

Objective:

To determine the amount of muscle activity in 4 shoulder muscles during exercise on the Cuff Link.

Design:

Repeated measures.

Setting:

Laboratory.

Subjects:

10 men and 10 women, age 18–50.

Intervention:

Subjects performed 3 sets of 5 revolutions on the Cuff Link in non-weight-bearing, partial-weight-bearing, and full-weight-bearing positions.

Main Outcome Measures:

Electromyography data were collected from the upper trapezius, anterior deltoid, serratus anterior, and pectoralis major and were expressed as percentage of maximal isometric contractions.

Results:

Significant differences were found across the weight-bearing conditions for all 4 muscles. Exercise on the Cuff Link required minimal to significant amounts of muscle recruitment.

Conclusions:

Muscle recruitment increases as weight bearing increases during use of the Cuff Link, suggesting an increase in dynamic stabilization of the glenohumeral joint.

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Sarah Kelly, Len Coote, T. Bettina Cornwell and Anna McAlister

This research provides insight into the complex relationship between consumer response to persuasion attempts and skepticism, suggesting that erstwhile targets may be swayed by campaigns pitched as a form of entertainment. The authors examine consumer responses to an important sponsorship-leveraging tool: sponsorship-linked advertising (SLA). A theoretical model of consumer response to SLA is proposed, drawing on important resistance mechanisms to persuasion, including ad skepticism, attributed advertiser motives, and the nature of thoughts. Results confirm existing research on consumer skepticism suggesting its transitory nature and hence potential for advertisers to strategically temper it through specific cues in ad execution. Differential processing between SLA and traditional advertising is supported, such that SLA elicits more favorable cognitive response.

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Gilles Dietrich, Alan Mark Wing, Martine Gilles and Ian Nimmo-Smith

This paper presents a conceptual model for studying the contribution of each leg to sideways stability of a four-link biped. It was assumed that a linear feedback controller maintained balance with torque related to the deviation from a reference value of the angle made by the trunk with the vertical. Predictions for ground reaction forces produced in resisting sideways push at the pelvis, based on simulation using a simple linear controller, are presented for two special cases (using one or both legs). This simple model was then compared to experimental data in which participants were asked to resist a sideways push. It was observed that all participants employed a strategy in which one leg was used to develop the force response. With this simple model, it was possible to simulate different kinds of responses to the balance perturbation. This model could be considered the first step of a more complex model in order to include specific components related to physiological parameters.

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Francis Farrelly, Stephen Greyser and Matt Rogan

This paper advances our understanding of sponsorship linked internal marketing (SLIM). Based on a comprehensive qualitative investigation of major sponsors, this research examines the use of sponsorship linked internal marketing to conceptualize, communicate and implement corporate identity development and employee performance. Sport (by way of an investment in sponsorship) provides a rich opportunity to build employee identification with corporate identity; to establish a fit between how the identity of the firm is positioned internally and externally; and to inspire employee engagement to drive business performance. Moreover, it helps to foster a collaborative culture. The research furthers our understanding of the value of sport sponsorship, sponsorship fit, and sponsorship leveraging.

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Michael P. Reiman, P. Cody Weisbach and Paul E. Glynn

Low back pain (LBP) is a multifactorial dysfunction, with one of the potential contributing factors being the hip joint. Currently, research investigating the examination and conservative treatment of LBP has focused primarily on the lumbar spine. The objective of this clinical commentary is to discuss the potential link between hip impairments and LBP using current best evidence and the concept of regional interdependence as tools to guide decision making and offer ideas for future research.

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Daniel Cury Ribeiro and Jefferson Fagundes Loss

Link segment models are usually used to calculate proximal net reaction forces (PRF), as well as, proximal net moments (PNM). The correlation between electromyographic data and PNM is usually used to verify the model’s results. Nevertheless, this method permits only a qualitative verification of the obtained results. To assess model’s results in a quantitative perspective, another approach is needed. The aim of the current study was to assess the propagation of uncertainty on a link segment model results and identify the main sources of error on the quantification of PRF and PNM. One male performed five repetitions of different upper limb movements. An inverse dynamics approach associate with 3D link segment model was used to quantify PRF and PNM. The results of the model were evaluated by the use of Kleine and McClintock’s equation. The propagation of uncertainty for PRF reached, on average, 0.27 and for PNM, 0.97. The main cause of propagation of uncertainty was associated to the second time derivative calculations. Consequently, it is possible to suggest that the reduction of small distortions of center of mass acceleration will diminish the proximal net moment and proximal reaction force uncertainty values.