Endurance exercise increases the use of endogenous fuels to provide energy for working muscles. Elderly subjects oxidize more glucose and less fat during moderate intensity exercise. This shift in substrate use is presumably caused by age-related changes in skeletal muscle, including decreased skeletal muscle respiratory capacity, because adipose tissue lipolysis and plasma fatty acid availability are not rate limiting. Endurance training in elderly subjects increases muscle respiratory capacity, decreases glucose production and oxidation, and increases fat oxidation thereby correcting or compensating for the alterations in substrate oxidation associated with aging.
Bettina Mittendorfer and Samuel Klein
Masashi Miyashita, Stephen Francis Burns and David John Stensel
This study examined the effect of accumulating short bouts of exercise on postprandial plasma triacylglycerol and resting blood pressure in healthy young men.
Nineteen subjects underwent two 2-d trials in a randomized counterbalanced order. On day 1, subjects either rested or performed multiple 6 min running bouts (30 min rest between each) until they had accumulated an energy expenditure of 4.2 MJ (1000 kcal). On day 2, subjects rested and consumed test meals for breakfast and lunch. Blood pressure was measured throughout days 1 and 2. Venous blood samples were obtained throughout day 2.
Systolic and diastolic blood pressure was lower for the exercise compared with the control trial on day 1. Postprandial plasma triacylglycerol concentrations and systolic blood pressure were lower throughout day 2 on the exercise compared with the control trial.
Accumulating short bouts of exercise throughout the day may modify cardiovascular disease risk.
Kevin J. Cole, David L. Costill, Raymond D. Starling, Bret H. Goodpaster, Scott W. Trappe and William J. Fink
The purpose of this investigation was to determine the effect of caffeine ingestion on work output at various levels of perceived exertion during 30 min of isokinetie variable-resistance cycling exercise. Ten subjects completed six trials 1 hr after consuming either 6 mg · kg−1 caffeine (3 trials) or a placebo (3 trials). During each trial the subjects cycled at what they perceived to be a rating of 9 on the Borg rating of perceived exertion scale for the first 10 min, a rating of 12 for the next 10 min, and a rating of 15 for the final 10 min. Total work performed during the caffeine trials averaged 277.8 ± 26.1 kJ, whereas the mean total work during the placebo trials was 246.7 ± 21.5 kJ (p < .05). Blood glycerol and free fatty acid levels increased over time to a significantly greater degree in the caffeine trials than in the placebo trials (p < .05). However, there were no significant differences between conditions in respiratory exchange ratio. These data suggest that caffeine may play an ergogenic role in exercise performance by altering both neural perception of effort and substrate availability.
Samuel N. Cheuvront, Robert J. Moffatt, Kyle D. Biggerstaff, Shawn Bearden and Paul McDonough
Claims that ENDUROX™ enhances performance by altering metabolic responses to exercise were tested. In a double-blind crossover design, 10 male subjects were randomly assigned to consume 400 mg of placebo or 800 mg ENDUROX™ for 7 days. Cycle ergometry was performed for 30 minutes at 25%, followed by 10 min at 65% of peak oxygen consumption. After a 1-week washout period, subjects performed the identical exercise protocol following 7 days of reciprocal supplemental conditions. Expired gases were collected and analyzed continuously for oxygen consumption, minute ventilation, and respiratory exchange ratio. Heart rate, blood pressure, rating of perceived exertion, blood lactate, and serum glycerol data were also collected at regular intervals. A two-way ANOVA with repeated measures revealed no significant main or interaction effects involving group differences (p > 0.05) between trials for any variable during rest, 25% or 65% (VO2 peak), or recovery. Our findings do not support the ergogenic claims for ENDUROX™.
Meredith C. Peddie, Claire Cameron, Nancy Rehrer and Tracy Perry
Interrupting sedentary time induces improvements in glucose metabolism; however, it is unclear how much activity is required to reduce the negative effects of prolonged sitting.
Sixty-six participants sat continuously for 9 hours except for required bathroom breaks. Participants were fed meal replacement beverages at 60, 240 and 420 min. Blood samples were obtained hourly for 9 hours, with additional samples collected 30 and 45 min after each feeding. Responses were calculated as incremental area under the curve (iAUC) for plasma glucose, insulin and triglyceride. Participants wore a triaxial accelerometer and a heart rate monitor. Energy expenditure was estimated using indirect calorimetry.
After controlling for age, sex and BMI, every 100 count increase in accelerometer derived total movement was associated with a 0.06 mmol·L-1·9 hours decrease in glucose iAUC (95% CI 0.004–0.1; P = .035), but not associated with changes in insulin or triglyceride iAUC. Every 1 bpm increase in mean heart rate was associated with a 0.76 mmol·L-1·9 hours increase in triglyceride iAUC (95% CI 0.13–1.38).
Accelerometer measured movement during periods of prolonged sitting can result in minor improvements in postprandial glucose metabolism, but not lipid metabolism.
Ildus I. Ahmetov, Olga L. Vinogradova and Alun G. Williams
The ability to perform aerobic or anaerobic exercise varies widely among individuals, partially depending on their muscle-fiber composition. Variability in the proportion of skeletal-muscle fiber types may also explain marked differences in aspects of certain chronic disease states including obesity, insulin resistance, and hypertension. In untrained individuals, the proportion of slow-twitch (Type I) fibers in the vastus lateralis muscle is typically around 50% (range 5–90%), and it is unusual for them to undergo conversion to fast-twitch fibers. It has been suggested that the genetic component for the observed variability in the proportion of Type I fibers in human muscles is on the order of 40–50%, indicating that muscle fiber-type composition is determined by both genotype and environment. This article briefly reviews current progress in the understanding of genetic determinism of fiber-type proportion in human skeletal muscle. Several polymorphisms of genes involved in the calcineurin–NFAT pathway, mitochondrial biogenesis, glucose and lipid metabolism, cytoskeletal function, hypoxia and angiogenesis, and circulatory homeostasis have been associated with fiber-type composition. As muscle is a major contributor to metabolism and physical strength and can readily adapt, it is not surprising that many of these gene variants have been associated with physical performance and athlete status, as well as metabolic and cardiovascular diseases. Genetic variants associated with fiber-type proportions have important implications for our understanding of muscle function in both health and disease.
Keisuke Ueda, Yutaka Nakamura, Makoto Yamaguchi, Takeshi Mori, Masayuki Uchida and Satoshi Fujita
Although there have been many investigations of the beneficial effects of both exercise and amino acids (AAs), little is known about their combined effects on the single-dose ingestion of AAs for lipid metabolism during exercise. We hypothesize that taking a specific combination of AAs implicated in glucagon secretion during exercise may increase fat metabolism. We recently developed a new mixture, d–AA mixture (D-mix), that contains arginine, alanine, and phenylalanine to investigate fat oxidation. In a double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover study, 10 healthy male volunteers were randomized to ingest either D-mix (3 g/dose) or placebo. Subjects in each condition subsequently performed a physical task that included workload trials on a cycle ergometer at 50% of maximal oxygen consumption for 1 hr. After oral intake of D-mix, maximum serum concentrations of glycerol (9.32 ± 6.29 mg/L and 5.22 ± 2.22 mg/L, respectively; p = .028), free fatty acid level (0.77 ± 0.26 mEq/L and 0.63 ± 0.28 mEq/L, respectively; p = .022), and acetoacetic acid levels (37.9 ± 17.7 μmol/L and 30.3 ± 13.9 μmol/L, respectively; p = .040) were significantly higher than in the placebo groups. The area under the curve for glucagon during recovery was numerically higher than placebo (6.61 ± 1.33 μg/L • min and 6.06 ± 1.23 μg/L • min, respectively; p = .099). These results suggest that preexercise ingestion of D-mix may stimulate fat metabolism. Combined with exercise, the administration of AA mixtures could prove to be a useful nutritional strategy to maximize fat metabolism.
Yanmei Niu, Hong Yuan and Li Fu
Insulin resistance (IR) is a common pathophysiological feature of Type 2 diabetes. Although the mechanisms leading to IR are still elusive, evidence has shown that aerobic exercise can reverse this process. To investigate the effects of aerobic exercise on IR, the authors created an IR animal model by feeding C57BL/6 mice a high-fat diet for 8 wk. They then compared the effect of 6 wk of treadmill training (60 min/d) at 75% VO2max on mice in normal-diet (NE) and high-fat-diet (HE) groups with their sedentary control groups. Levels of skeletal-muscle AMPKα (AMP-activated protein kinase α), ACC (acetyl-CoA carboxylases), and CPT1 (carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1) mRNA and AMPKα, pAMPK-Thr172, ACC, pACC-Ser79, and CPT1 protein expressions were analyzed. In addition, fasting serum levels of insulin, triglyceride, and cholesterol were measured. The results demonstrate that 6 wk of exercise increased AMPKα mRNA expression by 11% and 25 % (p < .01) in the NE and HE groups, respectively, and AMPKα protein expression by 37.9% and 20.1% (p < .01) in NE and HE compared with their sedentary control. In addition, ACC mRNA and protein expressions declined, whereas CPT1 mRNA and protein expressions were elevated in both exercise groups compared with sedentary control groups. In addition, pAMPK-Thr172 and pACC-Ser79 expression increased significantly in the NE and HE groups compared with sedentary control groups. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that 6 wk of aerobic exercise can effectively ameliorate IR by increasing the expression of AMPKα and pAMPK-Thr172, thereby activating the key enzymes that facilitate lipid metabolism.
Effect of Aging on Glucose and Lipid Metabolism during Endurance Exercise Bettina Mittendorfer * Samuel Klein * 12 2001 11 11 s1 s1 S86 S86 S91 S91 10.1123/ijsnem.11.s1.s86 Skeletal Muscle Fatty Acid Transport and Transporters J.J.F.P. Luiken * D. Miskovic * Y. Arumugam * J.F.C. Glatz * A
Rochelle R. Costa, Adriana C.K. Buttelli, Leandro Coconcelli, Laura F. Pereira, Alexandra F. Vieira, Alex de O. Fagundes, Juliano B. Farinha, Thais Reichert, Ricardo Stein and Luiz F.M. Kruel
Dyslipidemias are heterogeneous disorders of lipid metabolism arising from multiple etiologies that result in alterations in blood lipoproteins (low-density lipoprotein—LDL and high-density lipoprotein—HDL) and lipid (total cholesterol—TC and triglycerides—TG) concentrations. 1 In elderly women