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Roger G. Bounds, Steven E. Martin, Peter W. Grandjean, Barbara C. O’Brien, Cindi Inman and Stephen F. Crouse

To test the effect of diet on the short-term lipid response to exercise, fourteen moderately trained (VO2max: 50.2 ± 6.7 ml/kg/min), healthy men (mean age: 28 ± 4 years) were alternately fed a high fat (60±6.7% fat) and a high carbohydrate (63 ± 3.2% carbohydrate) isoenergetic diet for 2 weeks in a randomized crossover design. During the last 4 days of the treatments, fasting total cholesterol, triglyceride. HDL-cholesterol, and HDL3-cholesterol were measured the day before, and again immediately, 24 hr. and 48 hr after exercise (4190 kJ, 70% VO2max). LDL-cholesterol and HDL2-cholesterol were calculated. Lipid concentrations were adjusted for plasma volume changes after exercise. A 2 (diet) × 4 (time) ANOVA with repeated measures revealed no significant interaction between the diet and exercise treatments. Furthermore, diet alone did not influence lipid concentrations in these trained men. Exercise resulted in an increase in HDL-C (10.7%) and HDL3-C (8.5%) concentrations and a concomitant fall in triglyceride (-25%) and total cholesterol (-3.5%). Thus, we conclude that diet composition does not affect the short-term changes in blood lipids and lipoproteins that accompany a single session of aerobic exercise in moderately trained men.

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Sang-Ho Lee, Steven D. Scott, Elizabeth J. Pekas, Jeong-Gi Lee and Song-Young Park

can ultimately result in damage to the cells. 5 This is concerning, as an impairment in lipid metabolism and an increase in free radical production can lead to greater risks of cardiovascular and metabolic disease in these athletes. 6 , 7 Octacosanol, a straight-chain, high-molecular-weight, primary

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Neil Armstrong and Bruce Simons-Morton

A computer search was complemented with an extensive hand search of bibliographies of located studies. All controlled trials, studies of trained versus untrained subjects, and reports of habitual physical activity in relation to lipid profile were analyzed and tabulated. The high-risk population was represented by controlled trials that reported relevant data. More convincing evidence for a beneficial effect of physical activity on blood lipids is apparent in cross-sectional studies. The results of longitudinal studies are unimpressive, but the studies are generally lacking in rigor. Empirical dose-response data relating the effects of physical activity to blood lipids in adolescents are nonexistent. Recommendations for an appropriate exercise prescription must therefore be based upon adult data and expert opinion. Emphasis should be placed upon promoting an increase in the amount of adolescents’ habitual physical activity.

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Rochelle Rocha Costa, Adriana Cristine Koch Buttelli, Alexandra Ferreira Vieira, Leandro Coconcelli, Rafael de Lima Magalhães, Rodrigo Sudatti Delevatti and Luiz Fernando Martins Kruel

Because of the strong association between cardiovascular diseases and morbidity, mortality, and high public health expenditures, 1 , 2 reductions in cardiovascular risk factors, such as improvements in lipid profiles and inflammatory markers, are therapeutic targets in numerous health studies 3

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Rochelle R. Costa, Adriana C.K. Buttelli, Leandro Coconcelli, Laura F. Pereira, Alexandra F. Vieira, Alex de O. Fagundes, Juliano B. Farinha, Thais Reichert, Ricardo Stein and Luiz F.M. Kruel

Dyslipidemias are heterogeneous disorders of lipid metabolism arising from multiple etiologies that result in alterations in blood lipoproteins (low-density lipoprotein—LDL and high-density lipoprotein—HDL) and lipid (total cholesterol—TC and triglycerides—TG) concentrations. 1 In elderly women

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Ching T. Lye, Swarup Mukherjee and Stephen F. Burns

and exercise combined impact postprandial TAG. However, it is hypothesized that aerobic exercise administered after PS intake may synergistically blunt chylomicron entry to the circulation and reduce hepatic lipid transport resulting in lower very low–density lipoprotein (VLDL) release ( Marinangeli

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Michael L. Mestek, John C. Garner, Eric P. Plaisance, James Kyle Taylor, Sofiya Alhassan and Peter W. Grandjean

The purpose of this study was to compare blood lipid responses to continuous versus accumulated exercise. Nine participants completed the following conditions on separate occasions by treadmill walking/jogging at 70% of VO2max : 1) one 500-kcal session and 2) three 167 kcal sessions. Total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), and triglycerides (TG) concentrations were measured from serum samples obtained 24 h prior to and 24 and 48 h after exercise. All blood lipid responses were analyzed in 2 (condition) × 3 (time) repeated measures ANOVAs. HDL-C increased by 7 mg/dL over baseline at 48 h post-exercise with three accumulated sessions versus 2 mg/dL with continuous exercise (P < 0.05). Triglyceride concentrations were unchanged in both conditions. These findings suggest that three smaller bouts accumulated on the same day may have a modestly greater effect for achieving transient increases in HDL-C compared to a continuous bout of similar caloric expenditure.

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Daniel L. Blessing, Robert E. Keith, Henry N. Williford, Marjean E. Blessing and Jeff A. Barksdale

The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of an endurance training program on blood lipids and lipoproteins in adolescents. Fifteen males and 10 females, ages 13 to 18 years, underwent pretest evaluations, including physical measurements, nutritional intake, physical working capacity (PWC), and fasting serum lipid and lipoprotein levels. Physical conditioning consisted of a 16-week progressive endurance training (ET) program 40 min·day1 three times per week. Twenty-five males and females matched for age, sex, and race served as controls. Following the conditioning program, the ET group had a significant increase (p < .05) in PWC and a significant decrease (p < .05) in sum of skinfolds and resting heart rate. A significant decrease (p < .05) was also noted for total cholesterol (TC) and the ratio of TC to high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) with a significant increase (p < .05) in HDL-C. No differences were found for the control group. The results suggest that 16 weeks of endurance training favorably improves blood lipid profiles in adolescents.

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Evelien Mertens, Peter Clarys, Johan Lefevre, Ruben Charlier, Sara Knaeps and Benedicte Deforche

Background:

Longitudinal evidence concerning the association between cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) and blood lipids and between anthropometric parameters (ANTP) and blood lipids is limited. This study aimed to investigate the association between changes in CRF and ANTP and changes in blood lipids.

Methods:

In 2002–2004 and 2012–2014, 652 participants were tested. CRF was measured as VO2peak using a maximal ergometer test. Waist circumference (WC) and Body Mass Index (BMI) were used as ANTP. Blood samples were analyzed for total cholesterol (TC), HDL cholesterol, LDL cholesterol and triglycerides. A linear regression analysis was performed to investigate associations between changes in CRF and ANTP and changes in blood lipids.

Results:

After adjustment a decrease in CRF was associated with an increase in triglycerides and a decrease in HDL cholesterol in men. An increase in WC was associated with an increase in TC, LDL cholesterol and ratio total/HDL cholesterol and a decrease in HDL cholesterol, while an increase in BMI was associated with an increase in ratio total/HDL cholesterol and a decrease in HDL cholesterol.

Conclusions:

WC and BMI were more longitudinally associated with blood lipids compared with CRF. Improving ANTP can enhance the blood lipid profile, while CRF had only limited influence.

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Maria L. Zonderland, Wietze B.M. Erich, Wouter Kortlandt and D. Willem Erkelens

A 3-year controlled intervention was used to study the influence of physical activity on the plasma lipid and apoprotein profile of 10-year-old Dutch schoolchildren. Twice-a-year measurements were taken of height, weight, body composition (skinfolds), pubertal development (Tanner stages), total cholesterol (TC), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), triglycerides (TG), apoproteins A-I and B (immunoturbidimetry), and participation in physical activities. The effect of the intervention was analyzed with a MANOVA. The intervention did not affect the level of the lipids and apoproteins of the boys. In the girls, the intervention led to a smaller increase of TG and a larger decrease of apoprotein A-I. There may be two explanations for the limited intervention effect. First, it may be due to the healthy baseline plasma lipid and apoprotein profile, which leaves little room for improvement. Second, the exercise intensity during the physical education classes may have been too low to bring about the desired effect.