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Gashaw Abeza, Norm O’Reilly, Kyle Kashuck, Joshua Law and Alexandra Speck

This case study presents the challenge of declining football attendance that a number of NCAA football programs are facing. The case participants (as members of a hypothetically formed advisory board) are asked to develop adaptive strategies and tactics to respond to this challenge by conducting an in-depth examination of fans’ declining stadium attendance and proposing recommendations to the Pac-12 Commissioner’s office. Particularly, students are expected to detail the reasons for fans’ declining stadium attendance, to identify the short-term and long-term implications of declining stadium attendance, and to specify adaptive (corrective) strategies that can be designed based on Arizona State University’s ticket-related marketing initiatives as a template. As a member of the advisory board, students are asked to address a list of questions and provide recommendations to address the challenge.

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Adam Karg, Heath McDonald and Civilai Leckie

Sport consumption is defined as “the manner in which a spectator interacts with the witnessed action that occurs during an event” ( Madrigal, 2006 , p. 268). Professional sports, like many products, are consumed via different channels. Live attendance is the traditional way to view sports, but

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Mark P. Pritchard and Daniel C. Funk

The relationship between the consumption of sport via media and its more active counterpart, attendance, remains ambiguous. Some researchers have observed a symbiotic relationship at work—each behavior fueling the other, whereas others see no connection or argue that media use competes with live attendance as a recreational substitute. The current study of baseball game spectators (n = 308) employed a dual-route framework (DRF) to describe symbiotic and substitution behaviors. High/low mixes of media use and attendance were used to identify four distinct modes of intake (heavy, light, and media- and event-dominant). Follow-up comparisons distinguished each mode with discrete levels of involvement, satisfaction, and spectator attraction. The results expose the limits of previous models of spectator behavior and encourage us to broaden our understandings of consumption frequency beyond attendance alone. The DRF modes suggest that plotting media use in conjunction with attendance offers a more accurate account of spectator involvement. If models like the escalator dissected the data, they would consider the light and media-dominant and the heavy and event-dominant modes as equivalent. The importance of media-dominant consumption and the strategic implications of these segments are discussed.

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Lynley Ingerson, Michael L. Naraine, Nola Agha and Daniel J. Pedroza

unable to watch or attend his favorite sport events as much as he likes. Social media and streaming apps enable him to garner the same experience as live attendance, as well as discuss each team’s performances with other fanatics in real time. He is well qualified to discuss the online communities of NBC

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Ben Larkin and Janet S. Fink

, & Trail, 2009 ). This could be particularly important given that a growing number of individuals are electing to forego the live attendance experience in favor of watching at home (e.g.,  Larkin et al., 2015 ) due in part to the inappropriate and antisocial behavior characteristic of many live sporting

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Matthew Katz, Bob Heere and E. Nicole Melton

choices—neither of which may perfectly represent their intentions during data collection. Fifth, a network is only as important as the ties on which it is based. We chose to create ego networks based on attending games together, but live attendance is only one form of consumption. Given the growing

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Nicholas M. Watanabe, Grace Yan, Brian P. Soebbing and Wantong Fu

the league to consider identifying alternative markets, shifting focus from live attendance to television viewership and online streaming. The broadcasting rights of CSL, which were traditionally dominated by China Central Television, are now controlled by Suning Commerce Group, a corporation that