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Catherine Mason and Matt Greig

experiencing pain, and for 76% of riders this pain was in the lower back. 3 Kraft et al 4 postulated that the cause of low back pain in riders might be an overuse syndrome of the lumbar spine as a result of the repetitive compressive, torsional, and bending loads absorbed by the rider. 5 The authors used

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Jeffrey M. McBride, Tony R. Larkin, Andrea M. Dayne, Tracie L. Haines and Tyler J. Kirby


The purpose of this investigation was to determine the effect of stable and unstable conditions on one repetition maximum strength and muscle activity during dynamic squatting using absolute and relative loading.


Ten recreationally weight-trained males participated in this study (age = 24.1 ± 2.0 y, height = 178.0 ± 5.6 cm, body mass = 83.7 ± 13.4 kg, 1RM/body mass = 1.53 ± 0.31), which involved two laboratory sessions separated by 1 wk. Linear position transducers were used to track bar displacement while subjects stood on a force plate for all trials. Vastus lateralis (VL), biceps femoris (BF) and erector spinae (L1) muscle activity (average integrated EMG [IEMG]) was also recorded during all trials. During the frst session subjects complete a one repetition maximum test in a stable dynamic squat (S1RM = 128.0 ± 31.4 kg) and an unstable dynamic squat (U1RM = 83.8 ± 17.3 kg) in a randomized order with a 30-min rest period between conditions. The second session consisted of the performance of three trials each for 12 different conditions (unstable and stable squats using three different absolute loads [six conditions] and unstable and stable squats using three different relative loads [six conditions]).


Results revealed a statistically significant difference between S1RM and U1RM values (P < .05). The stable trials resulted in the same or a significantly higher value for VL, BF and L1 muscle activity in comparison with the unstable trials for all twelve conditions.


Unstable squatting is of equal or less (depending on the loading condition) benefit to improving or maximizing muscle activity during resistance exercise.

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Keith Baar

 al., 2005 ). Interestingly, subelite athletes report significantly lower PT (14.4% for volleyball), suggesting that the volume or intensity of loading contributes to the development of this chronic problem ( Hagglund et al., 2011 ; Janssen et al., 2015 ). PT is especially common in professional basketball

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David L. Carey, Justin Crow, Kok-Leong Ong, Peter Blanch, Meg E. Morris, Ben J. Dascombe and Kay M. Crossley

Training-load prescription in team-sport athletes is a balance between performance improvement 1 , 2 and injury-risk reduction. 3 – 6 The manipulation of training intensity, duration, and frequency to induce improvements in athletic performance is a fundamental objective of training

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Harry G. Banyard, Kazunori Nosaka, Alex D. Vernon and G. Gregory Haff

Resistance-training intensity is typically derived from a percentage of an actual or estimated 1-repetition maximum (1-RM) assessment. 1 Once a 1-RM load is determined, a strength coach can periodize the relative intensity of the training sessions to maximize adaptation and allow for recovery. 2

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Franco M. Impellizzeri, Samuele M. Marcora and Aaron J. Coutts

The concepts of internal and external training load were first presented at the Eighth Annual Congress of the European College of Sport Science in Salzburg, Austria (2003) 1 at an invited session and symposium organized by Tom Reilly. The content of this presentation was included in 2 follow

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Håvard Wiig, Thor Einar Andersen, Live S. Luteberget and Matt Spencer

Monitoring and managing training load may assist to achieve the desired training outcome 1 and reduce injury risk. 2 , 3 However, quantifying training load accurately and reliably is challenging in team sports due to the complexity of movements and actions, and the constant shifting intensities

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Alice D. LaGoy, Caleb Johnson, Katelyn F. Allison, Shawn D. Flanagan, Mita T. Lovalekar, Takashi Nagai and Chris Connaboy

Heavy external loads carried by warfighters throughout training and during recent military operations such as Operation Enduring Freedom and Operation Iraqi Freedom compromise the warfighter’s ability to execute operational tasks, altering joint mechanics and muscle activation patterns. 1 – 4

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Irineu Loturco, Lucas A. Pereira, Ciro Winckler, Weverton L. Santos, Ronaldo Kobal and Michael McGuigan

The load–velocity relationship is widely recognized for its ability to accurately predict the 1-repetition maximum (1RM) in both lower-body and upper-body exercises. 1 – 3 With the data generated by linear-regression models, practitioners can frequently monitor and adjust the resistance

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Andrew D. Govus, Aaron Coutts, Rob Duffield, Andrew Murray and Hugh Fullagar

Daily monitoring of a player’s internal and external training loads is critical in American college football since a high training load coupled with inadequate recovery can result in injury, illness, or overtraining. 1 One commonly used noninvasive method of monitoring an athlete