Fundamental motor skills (FMS) are the building blocks to more complex movement patterns, sport participation, and physical activity (PA; Clark & Metcalfe, 2002 ). FMS, which include locomotor skills (e.g., run, gallop, jump, leap, skip, slide, hop), must be taught in a developmentally appropriate
Ali Brian, Laura Bostick, Angela Starrett, Aija Klavina, Sally Taunton Miedema, Adam Pennell, Alex Stribing, Emily Gilbert and Lauren J. Lieberman
Sarah Burkart, Jasmin Roberts, Matthew C. Davidson and Sofiya Alhassan
-taught locomotor-based PA (LB-PA) program on the locomotor skills and PA levels of minority preschool-aged children. A brief description of the participants and intervention is provided here, with further details presented elsewhere. 17 Study participants were low socioeconomic status preschool-aged children (61
Lisa M. Barnett and Owen Makin
small circle represents ‘pretty good’. The PMSC is the first tool to match perception items to items assessed in a FMS battery. In the version that matches the American Test of Gross Motor Development, 2nd edition (TGMD-2; Ulrich, 2000 ), perception in six locomotor (run, gallop, hop, leap, horizontal
Jonathon J.S. Weakley, Dale B. Read, Hugh H.K. Fullagar, Carlos Ramirez-Lopez, Ben Jones, Cloe Cummins and John A. Sampson
information typically being available to practitioners and scientists after exercise. In addition, these devices can also be used to provide “live” feedback, which can inform staff of internal and external load throughout a match or training session. Live information of locomotor metrics (eg, total distance
Mathieu Lacome, Ben M. Simpson, Yannick Cholley and Martin Buchheit
small-sided games (SSGs) can be used to improve football-specific fitness and match winning–related factors. 1 – 3 The key programming elements of SSGs are now well understood: a range of variables can be modulated to affect intensity and, in turn, the metabolic and locomotor responses. 4 Nevertheless
Sheri L. Berkeley, Lauriece L. Zittel, Lisa V. Pitney and Stacia E. Nichols
The purpose of this study was to examine the locomotor and object control skills of children, ages 6–8 years, with autism and to compare their performances with the norms reported by Ulrich (1985) for the Test of Gross Motor Development (TGMD). Consistent with trends from the general population, differences were found between boys (n = 10) and girls (n = 5) with the largest differences found in the object control skill performances. Overall fundamental skill delays were demonstrated by 73% of all participants, placing them in the poor and very poor TGMD performance categories. These findings support the need to assess the gross motor skills of young children with autism in addition to other developmental skill areas outlined in diagnostic manuals.
Lisa M. Barnett, Avigdor Zask, Lauren Rose, Denise Hughes and Jillian Adams
Fundamental movement skills are a correlate of physical activity and weight status. Children who participated in a preschool intervention had greater movement skill proficiency and improved anthropometric measures (waist circumference and BMI z scores) post intervention. Three years later, intervention girls had retained their object control skill advantage. The study purpose was to assess whether at 3-year follow up a) intervention children were more physically active than controls and b) the intervention effect on anthropometrics was still present.
Children were assessed at ages 4, 5, and 8 years for anthropometric measures and locomotor and object control proficiency (Test of Gross Motor Development-2). At age 8, children were also assessed for moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) (using accelerometry). Several general linear models were run, the first with MVPA as the outcome, intervention/control, anthropometrics, object control and locomotor scores as predictors, and age and sex as covariates. The second and third models were similar, except baseline to follow-up anthropometric differences were the outcome.
Overall follow-up rate was 29% (163/560), with 111 children having complete data. There were no intervention control differences in either MVPA or anthropometrics.
Increased skill competence did not translate to increased physical activity.
Leah E. Robinson, Kara K. Palmer, Jacqueline M. Irwin, Elizabeth Kipling Webster, Abigail L. Dennis, Sheri J. Brock and Mary E. Rudisill
This study examined the effect of demonstration conditions (multimedia and live) in school-age children on performance of the Test of Gross Motor Development—Second Edition (TGMD-2) locomotor and object control subscale raw scores, and participants’ enjoyment in the preoperational and operational stages of cognitive development. Forty-five children ages 5–10 years were divided into two age groups: younger (n = 21, M age = 5.95 years, SD = .80) and older (n = 24, M age = 8.96 years, SD = .86). Children completed the TGMD-2 under two counterbalanced conditions: live and multimedia demonstration. Immediately following each testing condition, children ranked their enjoyment and completed a semistructured interview. Paired sample t tests examined motor skill and enjoyment differences in each age group. For both groups, no statistically significant differences were present for motor skill performance or participants’ enjoyment between the two demonstration conditions (p ≥ .05). Overall, 44.5% of participants preferred the multimedia demonstration, while 32.5% preferred the live demonstration. Mixed responses were reported by 22.5% of participants. Within age groups, younger participants preferred the multimedia demonstration more than older participants (multimedia = 50%, 41%; live = 23%, 41%, respectively). This study provides evidence that multimedia demonstration may be suitable for administration of the TGMD-2.
Mohsen Shafizadeh, Nicola Theis and Keith Davids
al., 2018 ). A RaceRunning bike has three wheels (in a triangular orientation), a saddle, a chest plate, and two handlebars to regulate the user’s postural control and balance while engaging in locomotor patterns of walking and running (see Figure 1 ). It is estimated that during a 6-min RaceRunning trial
Chantale Ferland, Hélène Moffet and Désirée B. Maltais
Ambulatory children and youth with cerebral palsy have limitations in locomotor capacities and in community mobility. The ability of three locomotor tests to predict community mobility in this population (N = 49, 27 boys, 6–16 years old) was examined. The tests were a level ground walking test, the 6-min-Walk-Test (6MWT), and two tests of advanced locomotor capacities, the 10-meter-Shuttle-Run-Test (10mSRT) and the Timed-Up-and-Down-Stairs-Test (TUDS). Community mobility was measured with the Assessment of Life Habits mobility category. After age and height were controlled, regression analysis identified 10mSRT and TUDS values as significant predictors of community mobility. They explained about 40% of the variance in the Life Habits mobility category scores. The 10mSRT was the strongest predictor (standardized Beta coefficient = 0.48, p = 0.002). The 6MWT was not a significant predictor. Thus, advanced locomotor capacity tests may be better predictors of community mobility in this population than level ground walking tests.