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Melanie S. Hill, Jeremy B. Yorgason, Larry J. Nelson and Alexander C. Jensen

relationships ( Jerrome, 1984 ; Phillipson, 1997 ). The reality for many, though, is increased feelings of loneliness, an important aspect of mental health in later life ( Dahlberg, Andersson, McKee, & Lennartsson, 2015 ; Wu et al., 2010 ). At younger ages, participation in various forms of physical

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Janet M. Boekhout, Brenda A.J. Berendsen, Denise A. Peels, Catherine A.W. Bolman and Lilian Lechner

Worldwide, the population is aging rapidly, and it is expected that between now and 2040, the absolute number of older adults (65 years and older) will double ( World Health Organization [WHO], 2015 ). The degree of loneliness varies across the life span, with the highest percentages of loneliness

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Randy M. Page, James Frey, Richard Talbert and Cindy Falk

Approximately 600 elementary school children (Grades 1-6) completed a loneliness rating scale and several fitness tests. Children who scored within low, average, and high ranges on the loneliness scale were compared to determine whether there were differences in levels of reported performance on fitness tests. ANCOVA tests revealed that lonely children were less physically fit and physically active than were those who were not lonely. Grade-specific analyses revealed that the relationship between levels of loneliness and physical fitness/physical activity appears to be most profound at the third- and fourth-grade levels. The results from this study suggest that lonely children may lack the social and/or physical skills necessary to effectively interact and function in group settings (physical activity is often a social activity for children). This could potentially perpetuate a cycle of poor social interaction, rejection or withdrawal, reduced physical activity, and reduced physical fitness.

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A. Justine Dowd, Toni Schmader, Benjamin D. Sylvester, Mary E. Jung, Bruno D. Zumbo, Luc J. Martin and Mark R. Beauchamp

The objective of the studies presented in this paper was to examine whether the need to belong can be used to enhance exercise cognitions and behavior. Two studies examined the effectiveness of framing exercise as a means of boosting social skills (versus health benefits) for self-regulatory efficacy, exercise intentions, and (in Study 2) exercise behavior. In Study 1, inactive adults primed to feel a lack of social belonging revealed that this manipulation led to greater self-regulatory efficacy (but not exercise intentions). In Study 2, involving a sample of inactive lonely adults, all participants reported engaging in more exercise; however, those in the social skills condition also reported a greater sense of belonging than those in the health benefits comparison condition. These findings provide an important basis for developing physical activity interventions that might be particularly relevant for people at risk for feeling socially isolated or lonely.

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John Fry and Daniel Bloyce

This article examines the effects of globalization on the well-being of migrant professional athletes. Interviews with 20 touring professional golfers reveal that players experience many of the personal problems—such as loneliness, isolation, low decision latitude, low social support, and effort-reward imbalance—which have been identified as “strong predictors of mental ill-health” (Leka & Jain, 2010, p. 65). Feelings of loneliness and isolation developed as players were regularly apart from family and friends, and spent most of their time with other golfers whom they had somewhat superficial relationships with. These feelings coupled with, for many, uncertain income generated through golf added further to their work-related anxieties. Overall, results highlight the importance of considering how workplace anxieties and vulnerabilities impact on athlete migrants’ health and well-being.

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Fabiana Medeiros de Almeida Silva and Aldemir Smith Menezes

longer or equal to 2 hours per day in sedentary activities was considered sedentary behavior. 2 Nine health-related behaviors (level of habitual physical activity, smoking, negative stress perception, feelings of loneliness, trouble sleeping, and consumption of fruits and vegetables, soft drinks, alcohol

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Mark Ward, Sarah Gibney, David O’Callaghan and Sinead Shannon

. From this perspective, loneliness is considered a manifestation of limited interactions, and therefore poor social environment may be associated with variation in physical activity levels ( Hawkley, Thisted, & Cacioppo, 2009 ; Newall, Chipperfield, Bailis, & Stewart, 2012 ; Pels & Kleinert, 2016

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Sarah A. McGraw, Christopher R. Deubert, Holly Fernandez Lynch, Alixandra Nozzolillo, Lauren Taylor and I. Glenn Cohen

experiencing these feelings, was coded as “depression”. Anxiety was defined as any description, by the player or family member, of the player as feeling anxious, nervous, insecure, or worried. Mentions of loneliness, isolation, feeling separate or apart from others were coded as loneliness, and anger included

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Timothy LaVigne, Betsy Hoza, Alan L. Smith, Erin K. Shoulberg and William Bukowski

We examined the relation between physical fitness and psychological well-being in children ages 10–14 years (N = 222), and the potential moderation of this relation by sex. Participants completed a physical fitness assessment comprised of seven tasks and a diverse set of self-report well-being measures assessing depressive symptoms, loneliness, and competence. Peers reported on social status and teachers rated adaptive functioning, internalizing symptoms, and externalizing symptoms. Multiple regression analyses indicated a significant association between physical fitness and psychological well-being for both boys and girls. Higher levels of physical fitness were associated with lower levels of peer dyadic loneliness and fewer depressive symptoms; greater cognitive, social, and athletic competence; greater feelings of self-worth; and better teacher reports of adaptive functioning. An interaction between internalizing and sex indicated a significant and negative association between physical fitness and internalizing symptoms for males only. No other moderation effects by sex were observed. Results suggest that physical fitness is associated with a range of well-being indicators for both boys and girls in this age group.

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Vaithehy Shanmugam, Sophia Jowett and Caroline Meyer

In the current study, we had two aims. First, we investigated the associations between eating psychopathology, situational interpersonal difficulties, and dispositional interpersonal difficulties among athletes and nonathletes. Second, we examined the mediating role of self-critical perfectionism, self-esteem, and depression in these associations. A total of 152 athletes and 147 nonathletes completed self-report instruments pertaining to relationship quality with significant others, as well as social anxiety, loneliness, self-critical perfectionism, self-esteem, depression, and eating psychopathology. Social anxiety and loneliness were found to be the only significant independent predictors of eating psychopathology among both athletes and nonathletes. However, such associations were indirectly mediated through depression for athletes and through self-critical perfectionism, self-esteem, and depression for nonathletes. The findings of this study suggest that the psychosocial mechanisms involved in the eating psychopathology of athletes are relatively similar to that of nonathletes. Thus, it can be tentatively proposed that treatments and interventions that target reducing interpersonal conflicts currently available for the general population should also be offered to athletes.