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James M. Pivarnik, Wendell C. Taylor and Sharon S. Cummings

This study presents 3 years of data from a longitudinal study designed to follow changes in VO2max and treadmill (TM) exercise performance in African-American girls throughout middle school. Subjects (N = 19) were tested 6 months apart during grades 6-8. VO9 and heart rates (HR) were measured continuously while each subject performed an incremental TM test to volitional exhaustion. Absolute VO2max (ml • min1) increased with time, while relative (ml • kg 1 * min1) values declined significantly from 6th to 8th grade. Treadmill time to exhaustion improved after the first test, but showed a significant decline by the end of 8th grade. Correlations between fall 6th-grade and spring 8th-grade aerobic fitness measures ranged from .35 to .57, indicating moderate tracking of these variables throughout middle school. Aerobic fitness values are low (compared to Caucasians) in African-American adolescent girls and show significant declines throughout middle school. Future studies should investigate anatomical, physiological, and behavioral reasons for the apparently low aerobic fitness seen in African-American girls.

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Martin D. Hoffman and Carol A. Parise

Purpose:

This work longitudinally assesses the influence of aging and experience on time to complete 161-km ultramarathons.

Methods:

From 29,331 finishes by 4066 runners who had completed 3 or more 161-km ultramarathons in North America from 1974 through 2010, independent cohorts of men (n = 3,092), women (n = 717), and top-performing men (n = 257) based on age-group finish place were identified. Linear mixed-effects regression was used to assess the effects of aging and previous 161-km finish number on finish time adjusted for the random effects of runner, event, and year.

Results:

Men and women up to 38 y of age slowed by 0.05–0.06 h/y with advancing age. Men slowed 0.17 h/y from 38 through 50 y and 0.23 h/y after 50 y. Women slowed 0.20–0.23 h/y with advancing age from 38 y. Top-performing men under 38 y did not slow with increasing age but slowed by 0.26 and 0.39 h/y from 38 through 50 y and after 50 y, respectively. Finish number was inversely associated with finish time for all 3 cohorts. A 10th or higher finish was 1.3, 1.7, and almost 3 h faster than a first finish for men, women, and top-performing men, respectively.

Conclusions:

High-level performances in 161-km ultramarathoners can be sustained late into the 4th decade of life, but subsequent aging is associated with declines in performance. Nevertheless, the adverse effects of aging on performance can be offset by greater experience in these events.

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Jorge E. Morais, António J. Silva, Daniel A. Marinho, Ludovic Seifert and Tiago M. Barbosa

Purpose:

To apply a new method to identify, classify, and follow up young swimmers based on their performance and its determinant factors over a season and analyze the swimmers’ stability over a competitive season with that method.

Methods:

Fifteen boys and 18 girls (11.8 ± 0.7 y) part of a national talent-identification scheme were evaluated at 3 different moments of a competitive season. Performance (ie, official 100-m freestyle race time), arm span, chest perimeter, stroke length, swimming velocity, speed fluctuation, coefficient of active drag, propelling efficiency, and stroke index were selected as variables. Hierarchical and k-means cluster analysis were computed.

Results:

Data suggested a 3-cluster solution, splitting the swimmers according to their performance in all 3 moments. Cluster 1 was related to better performances (talented swimmers), cluster 2 to poor performances (nonproficient swimmers), and cluster 3 to average performance (proficient swimmers) in all moments. Stepwise discriminant analysis revealed that 100%, 94%, and 85% of original groups were correctly classified for the 1st, 2nd, and 3rd evaluation moments, respectively (0.11 ≤ Λ ≤ 0.80; 5.64 ≤ χ2 ≤ 63.40; 0.001 < P ≤ .68). Membership of clusters was moderately stable over the season (stability range 46.1–75% for the 2 clusters with most subjects).

Conclusion:

Cluster stability is a feasible, comprehensive, and informative method to gain insight into changes in performance and its determinant factors in young swimmers. Talented swimmers were characterized by anthropometrics and kinematic features.

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Yongming Li, Margot Niessen, Xiaoping Chen and Ulrich Hartmann

AER % for coaches to establish their understanding of women’s Olympic kayaking, the involved persons should realize that the energy-calculating method can play a role in defining the values of W AER %. In addition, if longitudinal assessment of energy contribution is performed for women’s Olympic

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Sam Coad, Bon Gray, George Wehbe and Christopher McLellan

Purpose:

To examine the response or pre- and postmatch salivary immunoglobulin A concentration ([s-IgA]) to Australian Football League (AFL) match play and investigate the acute and cumulative influence of player workload and postmatch [s-IgA] after repeated participation in AFL match play.

Methods:

Eleven elite AFL athletes (21.8 ± 2.4 y, 186.9 ± 7.9 cm, 87.4 ± 7.5 kg) were monitored throughout 3 matches during the preseason that were separated by 7 d. Saliva samples were collected across each AFL match at 24 h and 1 h prematch and 1, 12, 36, and 60 h postmatch to determine [s-IgA]. Global positioning systems (GPS) with integrated triaxial accelerometers were used to determine total player workload during match play. Hypothesis testing was conducted for time-dependent changes in [s-IgA] and player load using a repeated-measures ANOVA.

Results:

Player load during match 3 (1266 ± 124.6 AU) was significantly (P < .01) greater than in match 1 (1096 ± 115.1 AU) and match 2 (1082 ± 90.4 AU). Across match 3, [s-IgA] was significantly (P < .01) suppressed at 2 postmatch measures (12 and 36 h) compared with prematch measures (24 and 1 h), which coincided with significantly (P < .01) elevated player load.

Conclusion:

The findings indicate that an increase in player load during AFL preseason match play resulted in compromised postmatch mucosal immunological function. Longitudinal assessment of AFL-match player load and mucosal immunological function across the first 60 h of recovery may augment monitoring and preparedness strategies for athletes.

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David B. Creel, Leslie M. Schuh, Robert L. Newton Jr, Joseph J. Stote and Brenda M. Cacucci

Sports Exerc. 2011 ; 43 : 1575 – 1581 . PubMed doi:10.1249/MSS.0b013e31821ece12 21681120 10.1249/MSS.0b013e31821ece12 6. King WC , Belle SH , Eid GM , et al . Physical activity levels of patients undergoing bariatric surgery in the Longitudinal Assessment of Bariatric Surgery study . Surg

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Thelma S. Horn

proficiency and adolescent physical activity and fitness: A longitudinal assessment . International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity, 5 , 1 – 12 . PubMed ID: 18687148 doi:10.1186/1479-5868-5-1 10.1186/1479-5868-5-40 Barnett , L.M. , Ridgers , N.D. , Zask , A. , & Salmon , J

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Michael Kellmann, Maurizio Bertollo, Laurent Bosquet, Michel Brink, Aaron J. Coutts, Rob Duffield, Daniel Erlacher, Shona L. Halson, Anne Hecksteden, Jahan Heidari, K. Wolfgang Kallus, Romain Meeusen, Iñigo Mujika, Claudio Robazza, Sabrina Skorski, Ranel Venter and Jürgen Beckmann

the Rating-of-Fatigue Scale may serve as an innovative instrument to register fatigue in various settings, the ARSS and SRSS qualify for a longitudinal assessment of the acute recovery–stress state in applied settings. 22 Overall, psychological measures of athlete recovery are characterized by their

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Weiyang Deng, Douglas L. Vanderbilt and Beth A. Smith

: 19587200 doi:10.3758/BRM.41.3.841 10.3758/BRM.41.3.841 McKay , S.M. , & Angulo-Barroso , R.M. ( 2006 ). Longitudinal assessment of leg motor activity and sleep patterns in infants with and without Down syndrome . Infant Behavior and Development, 29 ( 2 ), 153 – 168 . PubMed ID: 17138271 doi:10

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Xiangli Gu, Senlin Chen and Xiaoxia Zhang

relationship between childhood motor skill proficiency and adolescent physical activity and fitness: A longitudinal assessment . International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity, 5 ( 1 ), 40 . doi:10.1186/1479-5868-5-40 10.1186/1479-5868-5-40 Bryant , E.S. , Duncan , M.J. , & Birch