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John Cairney, Divya Joshi, Matthew Kwan, John Hay and Brent Faught

This study examines the associations among socioeconomic status (SES), aging, gender and sport and physical activity participation from late childhood into adolescence. Drawing from previous research, we test three hypotheses regarding the impact of aging on SES and sport participation using longitudinal data. The data come from a prospective cohort study of children, all of whom were enrolled in grade 4 (at baseline) in the public school system of a large region of southern Ontario, Canada. We examine two outcome measures: participation in organized sport and physical activity and active free play. Our results show different effects of neighborhood household income, aging and gender for each outcome. For organized sport participation, neighborhood household income effects are constant over time for both boys and girls. For active free play however, neighborhood household income differences widen (or diverge) over time for girls, but not for boys. We discuss the implications of these findings for future research and policy considerations.

Cette étude examine les associations entre statut socioéconomique, âge, genre et participation en sport et en activité physique de la fin de l’enfance à l’adolescence. Nous nous appuyons sur les recherches antérieures et des données longitudinales pour tester trois hypothèses à propos de l’impact de l’âge sur le statut socioéconomique et la participation en sport. Les données proviennent d’une étude de cohorte prospective d’enfants, tous étant inscrits en 4ème année (au début de l’étude) dans le système scolaire public d’une grande région du sud de l’Ontario au Canada. Nous mesurons deux types de résultats : la participation en sport organisé et activité physique et le jeu libre actif. Nos résultats montrent différents effets du revenu du ménage du quartier, de l’âge et du genre pour chaque résultat. Pour la participation en sport organisé, les effets du revenu du ménage du quartier sont constants avec le temps à la fois pour les garçons et les filles. Pour le jeu libre actif en revanche, les différences dans le revenu du ménage augmentent (ou divergent) avec le temps pour les filles, mais pas pour les garçons. Nous discutons les implications de ces résultats pour les études et politiques futures.

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Richard A. Dunn, W. Douglass Shaw and Michael A. Trousdale

In this article, the authors examine how temperature and precipitation affect the probability that a retired American between the ages of 65 and 90 walks at least 2.5 hr/wk, using longitudinal data on walking frequency from the Consumption and Activities Mail Survey, a subpanel in the Health and Retirement Survey. Walking behavior is linked with monthly temperature and precipitation data from weather-station reports. The authors found that higher temperatures were associated with a higher probability of walking at least 2.5 hr/wk for women. In contrast, higher temperatures are associated with a lower probability of walking at least 2.5 hr/wk among men. Precipitation is not significantly associated with walking behavior for either gender.

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Jill M. Slade, Hector De Los Santos-Posadas and M. Elaine Cress

This study examined the change in 15K running performance for master runners over 21 years (1978–1998). Official times were collected for 60 male runners from the same running event. Trends in running performance were analyzed with several models (linear, polynomial, and segmented-line). A self-report questionnaire was used to quantify training and to characterize runners. Peak age of running performance was indirectly estimated at 33 years using a second-degree polynomial. The performance trend was also associated with an inflection point at age 41 directly estimated from a nonlinear, segmented, mixed-effects model (95% confidence interval: 38.77–42.44). After age 41, master runners ran nearly 1 min slower each year. Besides age, other parameters that influenced performance over time included type of training (interval training) and body weight. These data might be among the first to describe the trend in running performance for a group of master athletes, most of whom were noncompetitive runners.

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David Feeny, Rochelle Garner, Julie Bernier, Amanda Thompson, Bentson H. McFarland, Nathalie Huguet, Mark S. Kaplan, Nancy A. Ross and Chris M. Blanchard


The objective of this study was to assess the associations among body mass index (BMI), leisure time physical activity (LTPA) and health-related quality of life (HRQL) trajectories among adults.


Self-reported data were drawn from the Canadian National Population Health Survey, with respondents being interviewed every 2 years between 1996–97 and 2006–07. Using growth curve modeling, HRQL trajectories for individuals aged 18 and over were associated with measures of BMI and LTPA. Growth models were constructed separately for males and females.


Findings suggested that, for males, BMI categories had little impact on baseline HRQL, and no impact on the rate of change in HRQL. Among women, higher BMI categories were associated with significantly lower baseline HRQL. However, BMI had no impact on the rate of change of HRQL. Conversely, for both men and women and regardless of BMI category, LTPA had significant impacts on baseline HRQL, as well as the rate of change in HRQL. Individuals who were inactive or sedentary had much steeper declines in HRQL as they aged, as compared with individuals who were active in their leisure time.


The results underscore the importance of LTPA in shaping trajectories of HRQL.

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Shevaun D. Neupert, Margie E. Lachman and Stacey B. Whitbourne

The current study examined exercise self-efficacy and exercise behavior during and after a strength-training intervention program with older adults. A model with cross-lagged and contemporaneous paths was tested with structural equations. Within testing occasions, higher physical resistance was related to greater beliefs in efficacy and control over exercise. At 3 months into the intervention, those who had higher physical resistance were less likely to show subsequent changes in beliefs. Those who had higher self-efficacy and control beliefs at 6 months were more likely to report that they were still exercising at 9 and 12 months after the intervention. Findings indicate that exercise self-efficacy and exercise behavior are associated with one another and that beliefs developed during an intervention are important for maintenance of an exercise regimen.

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Timothy J.H. Lathlean, Paul B. Gastin, Stuart V. Newstead and Caroline F. Finch

Purpose: To investigate associations between load (training and competition) and wellness in elite junior Australian Football players across 1 competitive season. Methods: A prospective cohort study was conducted during the 2014 playing season in 562 players from 9 teams. Players recorded their training and match intensities according to the session-rating-of-perceived-exertion (sRPE) method. Based on sRPE player loads, a number of load variables were quantified, including cumulative load and the change in load across different periods of time (including the acute-to-chronic load ratio). Wellness was quantified using a wellness index including sleep, fatigue, soreness, stress, and mood on a Likert scale from 1 to 5. Results: Players spent an average of 85 (21) min in each match and 65 (31) min per training session. Average match loads were 637 (232) arbitrary units, and average training loads were 352 (233) arbitrary units. Over the 24 wk of the 2014 season, overall wellness had a significant linear negative association with 1-wk load (B = −0.152; 95% confidence interval, −0.261 to −0.043; P = .006) and an inverse U-curve relationship with session load (B = −0.078; 95% confidence interval, 0.143 to 0.014; P = .018). Mood, stress, and soreness were all found to have associations with load. Conclusions: This study demonstrates that load (within a session and across the week) is important in managing the wellness of elite junior Australian Football players. Quantifying loads and wellness at this level will help optimize player management and has the potential to reduce the risk of adverse events such as injury.

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Keith R. Lohse, Jincheng Shen and Allan J. Kozlowski

evaluating change vary with data structure and trade-offs one may face in selecting from available methods. Garcia and Marder ( 2017 ) discuss three problems common to longitudinal data: (1) correlations within the data, (2) irregularly timed measurements, and (3) missing data. Correlations within data can

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Janice C. Wendt and Linda L. Bain

Concerns of preservice and inservice physical educators differ in the area of concerns for self and concerns for impact, which are lower in each instance when looked at in cross-sectional data. Longitudinal data only give evidence of lower self-concerns over time. Fuller’s prediction of higher concern for impact is not realized with this sample. It may be that Fuller’s scale is valuable only in predicting self-concerns.

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Bonnie Field, Tom Cochrane, Rachel Davey and Yohannes Kinfu

The aim of this study was to identify determinants of walking and whether walking maintained mobility among women as they transition from their mid-70s to their late 80s. We used 12 years of follow-up data (baseline 1999) from the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women’s Health (n = 10,322). Fifteen determinants of walking were included in the analysis and three indicators of mobility. Longitudinal data analyses techniques were employed. Thirteen of the 15 determinants were significant predictors of walking. Women in their mid-70s who walked up to 1 hr per week were less likely to experience loss of mobility in very old age, including reduced likelihood of using a mobility aid. Hence, older women who do no walking should be encouraged to walk to maintain their mobility and their independence as they age, particularly women in their 70s and 80s who smoke, are overweight, have arthritis, or who have had a recent fall.

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Emily Kaier, Danielle Zanotti, Joanne L. Davis, Kathleen Strunk and Lisa DeMarni Cromer

Sleep concerns are prevalent among student-athletes and can result in impaired athletic and academic performance. The current study investigated the feasibility and effectiveness of a brief sleep workshop for student-athletes. Athletes (N = 152) completed baseline and follow-up questionnaires (n = 104) after the intervention. Greater than half of the athletes (51%) who attended the workshops and followup reported at least one change in sleep behaviors. Results revealed a significant decrease in sleepiness from baseline to follow-up and an improvement in daytime functioning. Although athletes reported an increase in problematic sleep hygiene behaviors, they recorded significant increases in sleep knowledge from baseline to follow-up, which was maintained at the second follow-up. These longitudinal data provide evidence that a brief psychoeducation sleep workshop for student-athletes is promising for improving sleep knowledge and daily functioning.