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Janet M. Boekhout, Brenda A.J. Berendsen, Denise A. Peels, Catherine A.W. Bolman and Lilian Lechner

into this association would be useful. As pointed out in recent reviews ( Petitte et al., 2015 ; Poscia et al., 2018 ), there is a paucity in research focusing on diminishing loneliness in persons with chronic diseases. Moreover, longitudinal studies into the association between PA and loneliness for

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Rodrigo Antunes Lima, Karin A. Pfeiffer, Niels Christian Møller, Lars Bo Andersen and Anna Bugge

regarding the relationship between PA and academic performance. 3 One of the important issues that warrants consideration is study design. The vast majority of previous studies have been cross-sectional, and the results are inconsistent. 3 Most of the longitudinal studies that exist report positive

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Leanna M. Ross, Jacob L. Barber, Alexander C. McLain, R. Glenn Weaver, Xuemei Sui, Steven N. Blair and Mark A. Sarzynski

health and mortality: Aerobics Center Longitudinal Study . Mayo Clin Proc . 2012 ; 87 : 944 – 952 . PubMed ID: 23036670 doi: 10.1016/j.mayocp.2012.07.015 23036670 3. Fang N , Jiang M , Fan Y . Ideal cardiovascular health metrics and risk of cardiovascular disease or mortality: a meta

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Daniel J. Madigan, Joachim Stoeber and Louis Passfield

Perfectionism in sports has been shown to be associated with burnout in athletes. Whether perfectionism predicts longitudinal changes in athlete burnout, however, is still unclear. Using a two-wave cross-lagged panel design, the current study examined perfectionistic strivings, perfectionistic concerns, and athlete burnout in 101 junior athletes (mean age 17.7 years) over 3 months of active training. When structural equation modeling was employed to test a series of competing models, the best-fitting model showed opposite patterns for perfectionistic strivings and perfectionistic concerns. Whereas perfectionistic concerns predicted increases in athlete burnout over the 3 mon ths, perfectionistic strivings predicted decreases. The present findings suggest that perfectionistic concerns are a risk factor for junior athletes contributing to the development of athlete burnout whereas perfectionistic strivings appear to be a protective factor.

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Ítalo Ribeiro Lemes, Xuemei Sui, Bruna Camilo Turi-Lynch, Steven N. Blair, Rômulo Araújo Fernandes, Jamile Sanches Codogno and Henrique Luiz Monteiro

, L.K. ( 2016 ). Determining the association between types of sedentary behaviours and cardiometabolic risk factors: A 6-year longitudinal study of French adults . Diabetes & Metabolism, 42 ( 2 ), 112 – 121 . PubMed ID: 26404651 doi:10.1016/j.diabet.2015.08.004 10.1016/j.diabet.2015

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Daniele Magistro, Filippo Candela, Paolo Riccardo Brustio, Monica Emma Liubicich and Emanuela Rabaglietti

Functional aging processes are characterized by a loss of performance capabilities for most physiological systems, such as aerobic endurance and lower body strength, which are important for independent living and active aging. The present study examines the direction of influence between aerobic endurance and lower body strength over time in Italian sedentary older adults. A three-wave longitudinal model was tested using cross-lagged analysis for 202 individuals aged over 65 years (mean = 73.92, SD = 5.84; 140 females). Analysis revealed that aerobic endurance and lower body strength decline over time. In addition, greater aerobic endurance positively affected lower body strength over time; however, the converse was true only during the first period (first 6 months). These findings emphasize the importance of these relationships for the design and implementation of effective physical intervention for older adults.

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Daniel J. Madigan, Joachim Stoeber and Louis Passfield

Perfectionism in sports has been shown to predict longitudinal changes in athlete burnout. What mediates these changes over time, however, is still unclear. Adopting a self-determination theory perspective and using a three-wave longitudinal design, the current study examined perfectionistic strivings, perfectionistic concerns, autonomous motivation, controlled motivation, and athlete burnout in 141 junior athletes (mean age = 17.3 years) over 6 months of active training. When multilevel structural equation modeling was employed to test a mediational model, a differential pattern of between- and within-person relationships emerged. Whereas autonomous motivation mediated the negative relationship that perfectionistic strivings had with burnout at the between- and within-person level, controlled motivation mediated the positive relationship that perfectionistic concerns had with burnout at the between-persons level only. The present findings suggest that differences in autonomous and controlled motivation explain why perfectionism predicts changes in athlete burnout over time.

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Atsumichi Tachibana, Futoshi Mori, Carol A. Boliek, Katsumi Nakajima, Chijiko Takasu and Shigemi Mori

This study investigated developmental aspects of the acquisition of operant-trained bipedal (Bp) standing and Bp walking in the normally quadrupedal (Qp) juvenile Japanese monkey (M. fuscata). Four male monkeys (age: 1.6 to 2.4 years, body weight: 3.3 to 4.6 kg) were initially operantly trained to stand upright on a smooth floor and a stationary treadmill belt (width = 60 cm, walking length = 150 cm). They were then trained to walk bipedally on the moving treadmill belt (speed: 0.4–0.7 m/s). A regular training program (5 days/week; 30–60 min/day) was given to each monkey for the first 40 to 60 days, followed by less intensive training. After the beginning of locomotor training, upright postural stability and Bp walking capability were assessed kinematically for 592, 534, 526, and 537 days on monkeys A, B, C, and D, respectively. Left side- and back-views of the walking monkey were photographed (10 frames/s) and videotaped (250 frames/s). Stick figures of the head, body, and hindlimbs were drawn with reference to ink-marks positioned in front of the ear and over the pivot points of hindlimb joints. All kinematic data were digitized and analyzed using image-analyzing software. After sufficient physical growth and locomotor training, all the monkeys gradually acquired: (a) a more upright and a more stable posture with a constant body axis orientation during Bp locomotion; (b) a more stable and a stronger functional coupling between the body and hindlimb movements with a less anterior (A)-posterior (P) fluctuation of a body axis; (c) a smaller leftward (Lt)-rightward (Rt) displacement of the midline pelvic position, allowing the monkey to walk along a straight course; (d) a more coordinated relationship among hip-knee, knee-ankle, and ankle-metatarsophalangeal (MTP) joints; and finally (e) the acquisition of well-coordinated Bp walking even at high treadmill belt speeds up to 1.5 m/s. All of these results demonstrated the capability of the physically developing monkey to integrate the neural and musculoskeletal mechanisms required for sufficient coordination of upper (head, neck, trunk) and lower (hindlimbs) motor segments so that Bp standing and Bp walking could be elaborated.

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Nicole Gero, Jacque Cole, Jill Kanaley, Marjolein van der Meulen and Tamara Scerpella

This longitudinal study evaluates the role of impact activity in bone accrual in premenarcheal girls. Twenty-eight gymnasts and 20 controls underwent 1-year analysis; fifteen gymnasts and 8 controls underwent 2-year analysis. Bone mineral density (BMD) was measured yearly by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. For the 1-year analysis, BMD accrual rates were greater in gymnasts than controls at the forearm only (p < .05). For the 2-year analysis, gains in BMD were 1.5 to 1.9 times greater at the forearm, total hip, and femoral neck for gymnasts (p < .05). These findings confirm the positive effect of impact activity on bone accrual in premenarcheal girls.

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Robert M. Malina, Audrey C. Choh, Stefan A. Czerwinski and Wm. Cameron Chumlea

Sex-specific equations for predicting maturity offset, time before or after peak height velocity (PHV), were evaluated in 63 girls and 74 boys from the Fels Longitudinal Study. Serially measured heights (0.1 cm), sitting heights (0.1 cm), weights (0.1 kg), and estimated leg lengths (0.1 cm) from 8 to 18 years were used. Predicted age at PHV (years) was calculated as the difference between chronological age (CA) and maturity offset. Actual age at PHV for each child was derived with a triple logistic model (Bock-Thissen-du Toit). Mean predicted maturity offset was negative and lowest at 8 years and increased linearly with increasing CA. Predicted ages at PHV increased linearly with CA from 8 to 18 years in girls and from 8 to 13 years in boys; predictions varied within relatively narrow limits from 12 to 15 years and then increased to 18 years in boys. Differences between predicted and actual ages at PHV among youth of contrasting maturity status were significant across the age range in both sexes. Dependence of predicted age at PHV upon CA at prediction and on actual age at PHV limits its utility as an indicator of maturity timing and in sport talent programs.