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Ilona I. McMullan, Brendan P. Bunting, Lee Smith, Ai Koyanagi and Mark A. Tully

self-rated vision over a 6-year period in older adults? and (c) what are the key risk factors for self-reported PA and self-reported vision over a 6-year period? Methods Participants The Irish Longitudinal study of Ageing (TILDA) is an ongoing cohort study of aging that includes community

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Daniel J. Madigan, Thomas Curran, Joachim Stoeber, Andrew P. Hill, Martin M. Smith and Louis Passfield

coach pressure ( Appleton & Curran, 2016 ). Against this backdrop, the aim of the present study was to examine the extent to which pressure to be perfect from parents and coaches showed cross-sectional and longitudinal relationships with perfectionism in junior athletes. Perfectionism Perfectionism is

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Lennart Raudsepp and Eva-Maria Riso

Purpose:

The objective of this study was to examine the prospective relationship and changes in sedentary behavior between adolescent girls, their mothers and best friends over time.

Method:

The results are based on 122 girls aged 11–12 years at baseline measurement, their mothers and best friends who completed ecological momentary assessment diary for the assessment of sedentary behavior. All measurements were taken at 3 time points separated by one year. We used structural equation modeling to examine associations among sedentary behavior of adolescent girls, their mothers and best friends.

Results:

A linear growth model for adolescent girls’ and their best friends’ sedentary behavior fit the data well, revealing an overall significant increase in sedentary behavior across time. Initial levels of mothers’ and best friends’ sedentary behavior were positively related with sedentary behavior of adolescent girls. The changes of adolescent girls’ and best friends’ sedentary behavior across 3 years were positively related. Cross-lagged panel analysis demonstrated significant reciprocal effects between adolescent girls’ and best friends’ sedentary behavior. Mothers’ sedentary behavior at baseline predicted daughters’ sedentary behavior at 1-year follow-up and vice versa.

Conclusion:

From early to midadolescence, changes in adolescent girls’ sedentary behavior were associated with changes in best friends’ sedentary behavior. These findings suggest reciprocal associations between sedentary behavior of adolescent girls and their best friends.

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Joey Lightner, Brandon C. Irwin and Matthew Chrisman

Examining this relationship in a longitudinal study, following individuals over time, would give this finding more credence. Few studies to date have examined how changes in social integration impact changes in physical activity. Social integration and physical inactivity were examined in the classic

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Huong Q. Nguyen, Jerald R. Herting, Ruth Kohen, Cynthia K. Perry, Andrea LaCroix, Lucile Lauren Adams-Campbell, Shirley A.A. Beresford, Charles B. Eaton and Lesley Tinker

Background:

The goals of this study were to examine 1) longitudinal trajectories of energy expenditure from recreational physical activity (PA) in postmenopausal women, 2) whether women who belong to different PA trajectories engage in different types of PA, and 3) whether baseline sociodemographic, health, psychosocial, and lifestyle characteristics predict membership in PA trajectories.

Methods:

Women from the Women’s Health Initiative Observational Study with baseline PA data (n = 92,629) were included. Physical activity, measured via self-report 6 times over 8 years, was converted to MET hr/wk for analysis. Latent growth curve mixture models and latent profile models were used to analyze longitudinal PA trajectories and cross-sectional PA composition, respectively.

Results:

Three distinct, stable PA trajectories (highly, moderately, and minimally active) were identified with nearly 75% of the women classified as minimally active (≤ 8 MET-hr/wk). The majority of women who were at least moderately active engaged in a balanced combination of walking, moderate, and vigorous PA. Sociodemographic characteristics such as income, education, and past vigorous PA were predictive of PA trajectory, as were some health status indicators (eg, body mass index), but not health related quality of life.

Conclusions:

Self-reported PA is largely stable across nearly a decade of follow-up in postmenopausal women.

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Sharon E. Taverno Ross, Nicole Larson, Dan J. Graham and Dianne Neumark-Sztainer

Background:

This study compared moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and sedentary behavior in U.S.–born and foreign-born adolescents and young adults, and differences in behavior change from adolescence to young adulthood by nativity.

Methods:

Data on 2039 U.S.–born and 225 foreign-born participants from Project EAT-III (Eating and Activity in Teens and Young Adults) were used to examine MVPA, television/DVD/video viewing, and computer use. Participants completed surveys at baseline in Minneapolis/St. Paul, MN secondary school classrooms in 1998–1999 (14.9 ± 1.6 y) and follow-up measures online or by mail in 2008–2009 (25.3 ± 1.6 y).

Results:

At both time points, foreign-born participants reported significantly lower levels of MVPA than their U.S.–born counterparts (P < .05). Foreign-born females at baseline and follow-up and foreign-born males at follow-up reported less television/DVD/video viewing compared with U.S.–born participants (P < .01). All participants experienced a significant decline in MVPA from baseline to follow-up (P < .001). Between-group analyses revealed a significantly greater decline in television/DVDs/video viewing for the foreign-born males compared with U.S.–born males from baseline to follow-up (mean change: foreign-born: –4.8 ± 1.32 hrs/wk, U.S.–born: –0.6 ± 0.6 hrs/wk; P < .01).

Conclusions:

Differences in activity patterns between foreign-born and U.S.–born youth into young adulthood may contribute to disparities in chronic disease risk. Nativity, along with the social, environmental, and cultural context, should be considered when designing programs to promote MVPA and prevent obesity.

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Janet L. Hauck, Isabella T. Felzer-Kim and Kathryn L. Gwizdala

without DS in a longitudinal design. Analysis of this data allows us to address the following research questions: 1. Are PA, gross motor skills, and fine motor skills over time different between infants with and without DS, and at which time points do differences occur? 2. In infants with DS, how do PA

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Keith R. Lohse, Jincheng Shen and Allan J. Kozlowski

following illness and injury (e.g., recovery of motor functions following a stroke). There are numerous designs (e.g., cohort studies, longitudinal studies, time to event analyses) and analysis methods available for studying change over time. In this perspective piece, our contention is that motor learning

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Rose M. Angell, Stephen A. Butterfield, Shihfen Tu, E. Michael Loovis, Craig A. Mason and Christopher J. Nightingale

’ striking development. Furthermore, in a longitudinal study (9 years) of striking performance by children ages 5 to 14 years, Loovis and Butterfield ( 2012 ) found significant variation in initial status with the exception of young children (5–7 years). While most children in their study presented growth

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Lennart Raudsepp and Kristi Vink

participation is at its highest level, especially in girls. 9 In a recent longitudinal study, Trilk et al 10 found that the number of sedentary minutes per day increased approximately 11% from sixth to eighth grade across different sedentary behaviors. According to behavioral economic theory 11 and findings