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Ilona I. McMullan, Brendan P. Bunting, Annette Burns, Lee Smith, Connor Cunningham, Roger O’Sullivan, Nicole E. Blackburn, Jason J. Wilson, and Mark A. Tully

adults (65+; Victor et al. 2002 ), whereas 34% of those aged 52 and over in England reported that they are “sometimes” (25%) or “often”(9%) lonely, based on the 2009–2010 data from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing ( Beaumont, 2013 ). Older adults may be more at risk of loneliness or social

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Ilona I. McMullan, Brendan P. Bunting, Lee Smith, Ai Koyanagi, and Mark A. Tully

self-rated vision over a 6-year period in older adults? and (c) what are the key risk factors for self-reported PA and self-reported vision over a 6-year period? Methods Participants The Irish Longitudinal study of Ageing (TILDA) is an ongoing cohort study of aging that includes community

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Daniel J. Madigan, Thomas Curran, Joachim Stoeber, Andrew P. Hill, Martin M. Smith, and Louis Passfield

coach pressure ( Appleton & Curran, 2016 ). Against this backdrop, the aim of the present study was to examine the extent to which pressure to be perfect from parents and coaches showed cross-sectional and longitudinal relationships with perfectionism in junior athletes. Perfectionism Perfectionism is

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Mary Margaret Williamson and Jessica Wallace

and Criteria Sources of evidence searched • CINAHL Plus • MEDLINE • APA PsycArticles • SPORTDiscus Search Terms • (“pediatric quality of life”) AND (“mild traumatic brain injury” OR “mild tbi” OR “mbti” OR “concussion”) AND (“longitudinal”) Search Limits • July 2015 to March 2022 • Peer reviewed

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Genevieve F. Dunton, Daniel Chu, Christine H. Naya, Britni R. Belcher, and Tyler B. Mason

enrolled in the Mothers and Their Children’s Health (MATCH) cohort study. The MATCH is a longitudinal observational investigation of the effect of parental stress on children’s obesity risk. A total of 6 assessments were conducted at approximately 6-month intervals (ie, baseline, 6 mo, 12 mo, 18 mo, 24 mo

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Jack Hagyard, Jack Brimmell, Elizabeth J. Edwards, and Robert S. Vaughan

a review), nor examined how robust the effect of expertise is longitudinally. In addition, the impact of inhibitory control on sport performance remains unclear. The current two-part study aimed to address these issues. Inhibitory Control Executive function can be defined as a multicomponent

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Joey Lightner, Brandon C. Irwin, and Matthew Chrisman

Examining this relationship in a longitudinal study, following individuals over time, would give this finding more credence. Few studies to date have examined how changes in social integration impact changes in physical activity. Social integration and physical inactivity were examined in the classic

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Lennart Raudsepp and Eva-Maria Riso


The objective of this study was to examine the prospective relationship and changes in sedentary behavior between adolescent girls, their mothers and best friends over time.


The results are based on 122 girls aged 11–12 years at baseline measurement, their mothers and best friends who completed ecological momentary assessment diary for the assessment of sedentary behavior. All measurements were taken at 3 time points separated by one year. We used structural equation modeling to examine associations among sedentary behavior of adolescent girls, their mothers and best friends.


A linear growth model for adolescent girls’ and their best friends’ sedentary behavior fit the data well, revealing an overall significant increase in sedentary behavior across time. Initial levels of mothers’ and best friends’ sedentary behavior were positively related with sedentary behavior of adolescent girls. The changes of adolescent girls’ and best friends’ sedentary behavior across 3 years were positively related. Cross-lagged panel analysis demonstrated significant reciprocal effects between adolescent girls’ and best friends’ sedentary behavior. Mothers’ sedentary behavior at baseline predicted daughters’ sedentary behavior at 1-year follow-up and vice versa.


From early to midadolescence, changes in adolescent girls’ sedentary behavior were associated with changes in best friends’ sedentary behavior. These findings suggest reciprocal associations between sedentary behavior of adolescent girls and their best friends.

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Huong Q. Nguyen, Jerald R. Herting, Ruth Kohen, Cynthia K. Perry, Andrea LaCroix, Lucile Lauren Adams-Campbell, Shirley A.A. Beresford, Charles B. Eaton, and Lesley Tinker


The goals of this study were to examine 1) longitudinal trajectories of energy expenditure from recreational physical activity (PA) in postmenopausal women, 2) whether women who belong to different PA trajectories engage in different types of PA, and 3) whether baseline sociodemographic, health, psychosocial, and lifestyle characteristics predict membership in PA trajectories.


Women from the Women’s Health Initiative Observational Study with baseline PA data (n = 92,629) were included. Physical activity, measured via self-report 6 times over 8 years, was converted to MET hr/wk for analysis. Latent growth curve mixture models and latent profile models were used to analyze longitudinal PA trajectories and cross-sectional PA composition, respectively.


Three distinct, stable PA trajectories (highly, moderately, and minimally active) were identified with nearly 75% of the women classified as minimally active (≤ 8 MET-hr/wk). The majority of women who were at least moderately active engaged in a balanced combination of walking, moderate, and vigorous PA. Sociodemographic characteristics such as income, education, and past vigorous PA were predictive of PA trajectory, as were some health status indicators (eg, body mass index), but not health related quality of life.


Self-reported PA is largely stable across nearly a decade of follow-up in postmenopausal women.

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Janet L. Hauck, Isabella T. Felzer-Kim, and Kathryn L. Gwizdala

without DS in a longitudinal design. Analysis of this data allows us to address the following research questions: 1. Are PA, gross motor skills, and fine motor skills over time different between infants with and without DS, and at which time points do differences occur? 2. In infants with DS, how do PA