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Sung Hyeon Cheon, Johnmarshall Reeve, and Ik Soo Moon

Using the field’s state-of-the-art knowledge, we designed, implemented, and assessed the effectiveness of an intervention to help physical education (PE) teachers be more autonomy supportive during instruction. Nineteen secondary-school PE teachers in Seoul were randomly assigned into either an experimental or a delayed-treatment control group, and their 1,158 students self-reported their course-related psychological need satisfaction, autonomous motivation, amotivation, classroom engagement, skill development, future intentions, and academic achievement at the beginning, middle, and end of the semester. Observers’ ratings and students’ self-reports confirmed that the intervention was successful. Repeated-measures ANCOVAs showed that the students of teachers in the experimental group showed midsemester and end-of-semester improvements in all dependent measures. A multilevel structural equation model mediation analysis showed why the teacher-training program produced improvements in all six student outcomes—namely, teachers in the experimental group vitalized their students’ psychological need satisfaction during PE class in ways that teachers in the control group were unable to do, and it was this enhanced need satisfaction that explained the observed improvements in all six outcomes.

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James W. Adie, Joan L. Duda, and Nikos Ntoumanis

Grounded in the 2 × 2 achievement goal framework (Elliot & McGregor, 2001), the purpose of this study was to investigate the temporal relationships between achievement goals, competition appraisals and indices of psychological and emotional welfare among elite adolescent soccer players. A subsidiary aim was to ascertain the mediational role of competition appraisals in explaining the potential achievement goal and well-/ill-being relationships. Ninety-one boys (mean age = 13.82 years) involved in an elite soccer program completed multisection questionnaires capturing the targeted variables. Measures were obtained on five occasions across two competitive seasons. Multilevel regression analyses revealed that MAp goals positively, and MAv goals negatively, predicted within-person changes in well-being over two seasons. PAp goal adoption was positively associated to within-person changes in negative affect. PAv goals corresponded negatively to between-person mean differences in positive affect. The results of the indirect effects showed challenge appraisals accounted for within-person associations between a MAp goal focus and well- and ill-being over time. The present findings provide only partial support for the utility of the 2 × 2 achievement goal framework in predicting young athletes’ psychological and emotional functioning in an elite youth sport setting.

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Tracy C. Donachie, Andrew P. Hill, and Daniel J. Madigan

; see Keijsers, 2016 ). This is the case for research that has examined the mediating effects of perfectionistic cognitions between perfectionism and emotions so far ( Wimberley & Stasio, 2013 ). To avoid these pitfalls, in the present study, we adopted a three-wave longitudinal design and employed

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Anne Holding, Jo-Annie Fortin, Joëlle Carpentier, Nora Hope, and Richard Koestner

participation, a major limitation of this study was the use of retrospective data for the first two time points of the study. While our sample of 158 elite retired athletes represents a major strength of this paper, studying this population with a fully prospective longitudinal design was not feasible for the

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Mikihiro Sato, Jeremy S. Jordan, and Daniel C. Funk

psychological involvement and physical activity by utilizing a longitudinal design to measure psychological involvement change over a 2-year period. Additionally, the study identified key behavioral correlates of the observed change. Our findings suggest that psychological involvement changes over time and that

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Maureen R. Weiss, Lindsay E. Kipp, Alison Phillips Reichter, Sarah M. Espinoza, and Nicole D. Bolter

the Run in promoting positive youth development. We extended past evaluation studies in several ways by including a longitudinal design, quantitative and qualitative methods, constructs and measures that align with the program philosophy, and multiple stakeholder groups to share perspectives on

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Nico W. VanYperen

This study of 65 highly skilled young male soccer players (mean age = 16.6 years) employed a 7-month longitudinal design to examine the causal relationship between performance level and interpersonal stress within the team. Particular attention was paid to the moderating effect of parental support. No evidence was found that interpersonal stress within the team was an important determinant of performance level. Rather, a low performance level leads to negative feelings about the social climate within the team. But this is only true under specific circumstances (i.e., when there is a perceived lack of parental support). The theoretical and practical implications of these results are discussed.

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Jessica H. Doughty and Heather A. Hausenblas

It is commonly believed that gymnasts are at risk for eating disorders. However, research examining whether gymnasts are a high-risk population for eating pathologies is equivocal. The purpose of our study was to examine disordered eating among Division I female gymnasts using a longitudinal design with validated eating disorder measures. Participants (n = 72) completed the Drive for Thinness, Body Dissatisfaction and Perfectionism subscales of the Eating Disorder Inventory-2 (Garner, 1991), and the Social Physique Anxiety Scale (Martin et al., 1997), twice during their competitive season (i.e., October and March). There were no significant time differences for the eating disorder subscales, indicating that gymnasts’ perfectionism, body dissatisfaction, and anorexic tendencies may be stable characteristics that do not change across a competitive season. Implications of these results and future research directions are discussed.

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Jana L. Fogaca, Jack C. Watson II, and Sam J. Zizzi

A fundamental issue in applied sport psychology is the development of competent professionals who can provide effective and ethical services to clients. The current study uses a qualitative longitudinal design to track the development of five novice sport psychology practitioners in their first year of practice. The research team analyzed and integrated data from surveys, interviews, and journals to understand the participants’ experiences and compare them to previous literature on practitioner development. Participants reported increased confidence and flexibility over time, and reduced their perceived anxiety and dependence on supervision. These changes were similar in nature to what has been reported for counseling trainees, but seemed to happen more quickly. These findings highlight important developmental characteristics of first year sport psychology practitioners, which can help graduate programs to tailor their supervision and training to their students’ needs.

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Robert J. Vallerand and Gaëtan F. Losier

The motives underlying involvement in sport appear to influence how a person will play the game. However, how athletes play the game may also have an impact on their motives for participating in sports. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between self-determined motivation and sportsmanship orientations by using a longitudinal design, as well as recent theoretical approaches to sportsmanship (Vallerand, 1991, 1994) and motivation (Deci & Ryan, 1985, 1991). Male adolescent elite hockey players (N = 77, mean age = 15.8) completed a questionnaire assessing both constructs 2 weeks into the hockey season (T1) and at the end of the regular season (T2), 5 months later. The results from cross-lag correlations suggested that, over time, self-determined motivation and sportsmanship orientations have a positive bidirectional relation, in which self-determined motivation has greater influence on sportsmanship. These results give further impetus to the need to consider motivation in future studies on sportsmanship.