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Yuko Hashimoto, Ko Matsudaira, Susumu S. Sawada, Yuko Gando, Ryoko Kawakami, Chihiro Kinugawa, Takashi Okamoto, Koji Tsukamoto, Motohiko Miyachi, Hisashi Naito and Steven N. Blair

Low back pain is currently a significant health problem worldwide. The Global Burden of Disease Study reported that low back pain was the largest contributor to years living with disability. 1 In Japan, a study showed that low back pain was the leading cause (65%) of musculoskeletal chronic pain 2

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Max C. Stuelcken, René E.D. Ferdinands and Peter J. Sinclair

This study aimed to investigate the bowling techniques of female fast bowlers and identify any association between a history of low back pain (LBP) and the movement patterns of the thorax relative to the pelvis during the delivery stride of the bowling action. Three-dimensional kinematic data were collected from 26 elite Australian female fast bowlers using an eight-camera Vicon motion analysis system. Nineteen bowlers used a mixed action, 6 bowlers used a semiopen action, and 1 bowler used a side-on action. Fourteen bowlers had a history of LBP. Eight of these 14 bowlers used a mixed action, and bowlers with more shoulder counterrotation were no more likely to have a history of LBP. Bowlers with a history of LBP positioned the thorax in more left lateral flexion relative to the pelvis between 73–79% of the delivery stride, and moved the thorax through a significantly greater range of lateral flexion relative to the pelvis during the delivery stride compared with bowlers with no history of LBP. This information will give coaches and support staff a better understanding of female bowling technique and may facilitate better screening practices for elite female cricketers.

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David M. Kahler

The complaint of persistent low back pain in an athlete is usually related to an identifiable structural disorder. As with all other medical conditions, effective treatment relies on an accurate diagnosis. Certain sporting activities are associated with characteristic acquired lesions; this knowledge, when combined with a thorough history and physical examination, will often dictate when the clinician should refer an athlete for further testing. Most causes of back pain in athletes can be treated nonsurgically if they are identified early and treated appropriately. The common congenital abnormalities, acquired conditions, and overuse syndromes causing low back pain in athletes will be discussed, along with appropriate diagnostic tests and treatment regimens.

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TaeYeong Kim, JaeHyuk Lee, SeJun Oh, Seungmin Kim and BumChul Yoon

The prevalence of nonspecific low back pain (LBP) is 80%. 1 Over half of individuals with nonspecific LBP will experience chronic symptoms lasting longer than 1 year, and these symptoms result in high health care costs. 2 Effective management to reduce pain intensity and to prevent a chronic pain

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Daniel Viggiani and Jack P. Callaghan

Low back pain (LBP) continues to be a burden on society 1 , 2 despite increasing knowledge on the topic. Identifying homogenous groups of LBP patients is necessary to reduce the inconsistency or variability in findings regarding factors affecting the causes, identifiers, and treatments of LBP. 3

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Mark A. Sutherlin, L. Colby Mangum, Shawn Russell, Susan Saliba, Jay Hertel and Joe M. Hart

The prevalence of low back pain (LBP) in athletes over the course of 1 year may be as high as approximately 2 out of every 3 individuals; however, this can be influenced by both the definition of LBP and sport observed. 1 Athletes who have sustained a previous episode of LBP have been found to be

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Fatemeh Azadinia, Ismail Ebrahimi-Takamjani, Mojtaba Kamyab, Morteza Asgari and Mohamad Parnianpour

.57 (8.65) 27.58 (5.83) .006* Physical activity 7.36 (1.10) 8.06 (1.19) .13 Note . Pain intensity was according to 10-cm Visual Analog Scale. LBP = low back pain; ODI = Oswestry Disability Index; TSK = Tampa Scale of Kinesiophobia; NA = not applicable. *The difference is significant at the .05 level. The

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Gakuto Kitamura, Hiroshige Tateuchi and Noriaki Ichihashi

In various sports, low back pain (LBP) is frequently seen in athletes, including volleyball players, rhythmic gymnasts, and competitive swimmers. 1 This often leads to reductions in training time and/or competitive opportunities. It has been reported that about half of all competitive swimmers

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Sara J. Golec and Alison R. Valier

diseases and are based on a critical review and summary of the best available evidence. Experts in medical fields create clinical practice guidelines and they are subsequently endorsed by professional organizations. One condition that is commonly treated by rehabilitation professionals is low back pain

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Orges Lena, Jasemin Todri, Ardita Todri, José Luis Martínez Gil and Maria Gomez Gallego

There is a real interest in knowing why low back pain (LBP) has become a very common disease in elite gymnastics athletes, given that it is assumed that they are in good physical conditions. One of the main causes cited in the literature about the reason why even athletes with a high physical