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Yuko Hashimoto, Ko Matsudaira, Susumu S. Sawada, Yuko Gando, Ryoko Kawakami, Chihiro Kinugawa, Takashi Okamoto, Koji Tsukamoto, Motohiko Miyachi, Hisashi Naito and Steven N. Blair

Low back pain is currently a significant health problem worldwide. The Global Burden of Disease Study reported that low back pain was the largest contributor to years living with disability. 1 In Japan, a study showed that low back pain was the leading cause (65%) of musculoskeletal chronic pain 2

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David M. Kahler

The complaint of persistent low back pain in an athlete is usually related to an identifiable structural disorder. As with all other medical conditions, effective treatment relies on an accurate diagnosis. Certain sporting activities are associated with characteristic acquired lesions; this knowledge, when combined with a thorough history and physical examination, will often dictate when the clinician should refer an athlete for further testing. Most causes of back pain in athletes can be treated nonsurgically if they are identified early and treated appropriately. The common congenital abnormalities, acquired conditions, and overuse syndromes causing low back pain in athletes will be discussed, along with appropriate diagnostic tests and treatment regimens.

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Fabianna R. de Jesus-Moraleida, Paulo H. Ferreira, Juscelio P. Silva, André G.P. Andrade, Rosangela C. Dias, João Marcos D. Dias, Marcella G. Assis and Leani S.M. Pereira

Low back pain (LBP) is the most disabling musculoskeletal condition experienced by the aging population ( Hoy et al., 2014 ; Macfarlane et al., 2012 ). However, researchers are still in the beginning of exploring the characteristics of LBP associated with this age group. A recent study showed that

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TaeYeong Kim, JaeHyuk Lee, SeJun Oh, Seungmin Kim and BumChul Yoon

The prevalence of nonspecific low back pain (LBP) is 80%. 1 Over half of individuals with nonspecific LBP will experience chronic symptoms lasting longer than 1 year, and these symptoms result in high health care costs. 2 Effective management to reduce pain intensity and to prevent a chronic pain

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Kaitlyn C. Jones, Evelyn C. Tocco, Ashley N. Marshall, Tamara C. Valovich McLeod and Cailee E. Welch Bacon

Clinical Scenario Low back pain (LBP) is widely prevalent in the general population as well as in athletics. Though the prevalence is variable depending on the sport, up to 94% of the athletic population will have LBP over their lifetime. 1 Chronic nonspecific LBP (NS-LBP) is defined as idiopathic

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Daniel Viggiani and Jack P. Callaghan

Low back pain (LBP) continues to be a burden on society 1 , 2 despite increasing knowledge on the topic. Identifying homogenous groups of LBP patients is necessary to reduce the inconsistency or variability in findings regarding factors affecting the causes, identifiers, and treatments of LBP. 3

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Michelle A. Sandrey

not for use in isolation. ▸ The strength of recommendation is grade B, due to inconsistent evidence. ▸ Evidence is lacking as to which instability tests should be included for athletes. Clinical Scenario Nonspecific low back pain can be caused by several variables including spinal instability, muscle

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Leila Ahmadnezhad, Ali Yalfani and Behnam Gholami Borujeni

Chronic low back pain (CLBP) is generally accepted as one of the most common musculoskeletal disorders, affecting, on average, 4% to 33% of people. CLBP can also affect the quality of life and lead to disability and absenteeism. Approximately 85% of the cases of low back pain (LBP) are described as

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Mark A. Sutherlin, L. Colby Mangum, Shawn Russell, Susan Saliba, Jay Hertel and Joe M. Hart

The prevalence of low back pain (LBP) in athletes over the course of 1 year may be as high as approximately 2 out of every 3 individuals; however, this can be influenced by both the definition of LBP and sport observed. 1 Athletes who have sustained a previous episode of LBP have been found to be

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Gakuto Kitamura, Hiroshige Tateuchi and Noriaki Ichihashi

In various sports, low back pain (LBP) is frequently seen in athletes, including volleyball players, rhythmic gymnasts, and competitive swimmers. 1 This often leads to reductions in training time and/or competitive opportunities. It has been reported that about half of all competitive swimmers