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Katherine A. Beals and Amanda K. Hill

The purpose of this study was to examine the prevalence of disordered eating (DE), menstrual dysfunction (MD), and low bone mineral density (BMD) among US collegiate athletes (n = 112) representing 7 different sports (diving, swimming, x-country, track, tennis, field hockey, and softball) and determine differences in prevalence existed between athletes participating in lean-build (LB) and non-lean build (NLB) sports. DE and MD were assessed by a health, weight, dieting, and menstrual history questionnaire. Spinal BMD was determined via dual energy x-ray absorptiometry. Twenty-eight athletes met the criteria for DE, twenty-nine for MD, and two athletes had low BMDs (using a Z score below −2.0). Ten athletes met the criteria for two disorders (one with disordered eating and low BMD and nine with disordered eating and menstrual dysfunction), while only one athlete met the criteria for all three disorders. Using a Z score below −1.0, two additional athletes met the criteria for all three disorders and three more athletes met the criteria for a combination of two disorders. With the exception of MD, which was significantly more prevalent among LB vs. NLB sports (P = 0.053), there were no differences between the groups in the prevalence of individual disorders or combinations of disorders. These data indicate that the combined prevalence of DE, MD, and low BMD among collegiate athletes is small; however, a significant number suffer from individual disorders of the Triad.

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Bernadette L. Foster, Jeff W. Walkley, and Viviene A. Temple

The purpose of this study was to describe and compare the bone mineral density of women with intellectual disability (WID) and a comparison group (WOID) matched for age and sex. One hundred and five women, ages 21 to 39, M = 29, were tested for their bone mineral density levels at the lumbar spine and three sites of the proximal femur using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. No significant difference between groups existed (λ = 0.94, F(4, 98) = 1.68, p = .16, η2 = .06); however, one-sample t tests revealed that bone mineral density for the WID group (n = 35) was significantly lower than zero at the Ward’s triangle (p < .01) and the lumbar spine (p < .05). Approximately one-quarter of WID had low bone density at these two sites, suggesting that WID may be at risk of osteoporotic fracture as they age.

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Sandra O'Brien Cousins

This study analyzed older women's (age 57–92, N = 32) descriptions of motivating triggers for physical activity. Among active women, activity was triggered by situations such as declining fitness levels, low bone density, more free time, fears about inadequate health care leading to self-care, expectations for reduced aches and pains, awareness of new community programs, and public reports of the health benefits. Semiactive women had doubts about the appropriateness of being active. Inactive people also experienced triggers but seemed firmly committed to a less active lifestyle by reminding themselves that retirement requires no commitments, exercise is not needed if you are healthy, exercise is not appropriate if you are ill, being very busy is a substitute activity, and serving others is less selfish. The findings suggest that active-living interventions might be more effectively aimed at semi active seniors who seem positively disposed to participating but need help to get started or to stay involved.

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. These changes were dependent on race duration. The highest increase was noticed in the albuminuria and uNGAL. It is not clear if AKI markers can help to differentiate between functional and structural kidney injury. Pelvic Fracture and Low Bone Density in a Long Distance Cyclist With a History of

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Sheena S. Philip, Joy C. Macdermid, Saranya Nair, Dave Walton, and Ruby Grewal

–control study showed that brisk walking is associated with DRF ( O’Neill, Marsden, Adams, & Silman, 1996 ). The incidence of DRF is four times higher in women than men ( O’Neill et al., 2001 ), which could be attributed to a higher prevalence of low bone density and osteoporosis. The frequency of DRF is 8

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George Wilson, Dan Martin, James P. Morton, and Graeme L. Close

; Waldron-Lynch et al., 2010 ; Warrington et al., 2009 ) have consistently reported that male flat jockeys present with low bone mineral density (BMD), with Z -scores often lower than –1. Such low bone densities are often considered to be due to a combination of nutritional factors, including low energy

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Thomas Cattagni, Vincent Gremeaux, and Romuald Lepers

scores of BMD were used to compare DL with healthy young females with peak bone mass according to the manufacturer’s instructions and the World Health Organization. 21 A T score between +1 and −1 denotes normal bone density. A T score between −1 and −2.5 indicates low bone density or osteopenia. A T

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Michelle T. Barrack, Marta D. Van Loan, Mitchell Rauh, and Jeanne F. Nichols

Reports, 4 ( 1 ), 38 – 44 . PubMed ID: 15659278. Retrieved from 10.1097/01.CSMR.0000306070.67390.cb Gibbs , J.C. , Nattiv , A. , Barrack , M.T. , Williams , N.I. , Rauh , M.J. , Nichols , J.F. , & De Souza , M.J. ( 2014 ). Low bone density

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David R. Hooper, William J. Kraemer, Rebecca L. Stearns, Brian R. Kupchak, Brittanie M. Volk, William H. DuPont, Carl M. Maresh, and Douglas J. Casa

hormone concentration alone is not used to determine hypogonadism. 10 In order to be considered for androgen therapy, an individual must demonstrate symptoms associated with hypogonadism, such as low libido, gynecomastia, infertility, low bone density, or reduced muscle mass. 10 As previously noted, 21