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Lisa Groshong, Sonja A. Wilhelm Stanis, Andrew T. Kaczynski, J. Aaron Hipp and Gina M. Besenyi

Background:

Public parks hold promise for promoting population-level PA, but studies show a significant portion of park use is sedentary. Past research has documented the effectiveness of message-based strategies for influencing diverse behaviors in park settings and for increasing PA in nonpark contexts. Therefore, to inform message-based interventions (eg, point-ofdecision prompts) to increase park-based PA, the purpose of this study was to elicit insights about key attitudes, perceived norms, and personal agency that affect park use and park-based PA in low-income urban neighborhoods.

Methods:

This study used 6 focus groups with youth and adults (n = 41) from low-income urban areas in Kansas City, MO, to examine perceptions of key attitudinal outcomes and motivations, perceived norms, key referents, and personal agency facilitators and constraints that affect park use and park-based PA.

Results:

Participant attitudes reflected the importance of parks for mental and physical health, with social interaction and solitude cited as key motivations. Of 10 themes regarding perceived norms, influential others reflected participants’ ethnic makeup but little consensus emerged among groups. Social and safety themes were cited as both facilitators and constraints, along with park offerings and setting.

Conclusions:

Information about attitudes, perceived norms, and personal agency can increase understanding of theoretically derived factors that influence park-based PA and help park and health professionals create communication strategies to promote PA.

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Chalida Svastisalee, Jasper Schipperijn, Bjørn E. Hostein, Lisa M. Powell and Pernille Due

Background:

To investigate socioeconomic patterning of physical activity resources in Copenhagen.

Methods:

We used multivariate logistic regression analysis to examine the association between physical activity-supportive resources [public open space (POS), cycling and walking paths, sports facilities, and intersection density] and neighborhood sociodemographic indicators (low education, recent immigrants, children under 15 yr, and household income).

Results:

Neighborhoods with high proportions of residents with low education were most likely to have POS (OR = 2.63; CI: 2.10–3.29), paths (OR = 3.60; CI: 2.84–4.56) and sports facilities (OR = 5.96; CI: 4.31–8.24). Mid-to-low income areas were less likely to contain POS (OR = 67; CI: 0.49–0.90), paths (OR = 0.36; CI: 0.26–0.50), and sports facilities (OR = 0.48; CI: 0.30–0.77). Areas with children were less likely to have connected streets (OR = 0.51; CI: 0.31–0.83) but more likely to have POS (OR = 1.40; CI: 1.15–1.70) and paths (OR = 1.52; CI: 1.25–1.85).

Conclusions:

Residents living in areas with high proportions of low education or young children are likely to have high exposure to physical activity resources. Exposure to physical activity resources in Copenhagen may not explain the inequalities in physical activity behavior. Further examination of exposure to built environment resources is warranted.

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Deborah A. Cohen, Bing Han, Sujeong Park, Stephanie Williamson and Kathryn P. Derose

within a 2-mile radius, we limited our surveys to within 1 mile as we found that among visitors to the low-income area parks, the majority lived within 1 mile of the park. Only 16% of park visitors came from more than 1 mile away. A statistical analysis system procedure called PROC SURVEYSELECT was used

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Leigh Ann Ganzar, Nalini Ranjit, Debra Saxton and Deanna M. Hoelscher

, 33 and because socioeconomic status is consistently found to be a determinant of physical activity behavior in adults, students in low-income areas could have less physical activity modeling outside of school. 34 In addition, in lower-income areas, the neighborhood economic context presents a

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Chia-Yuan Yu and Biyuan Wang

that pay more for the access to transit service. 23 Therefore, the concept of equity should be considered in the planning process to benefits all groups for the transit service. Moreover, for transit stations in low-income areas, policymakers should consider expand the catchment areas for the walking

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Rebecca E. Hasson

children: A randomized controlled study . Journal of Public Health (Oxford), 32 ( 2 ), 219 – 229 . 10.1093/pubmed/fdp105 Cohen , D.A. , Han , B. , Derose , K.P. , Williamson , S. , Marsh , T. , Raaen , L. , & McKenzie , T.L. ( 2016 ). The paradox of parks in low-income areas: Park use

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Andrea Richardson, Bing Han, Stephanie Williamson and Deborah Cohen

physical activity disparities. 10 – 13 Parks provide opportunities to experience nature and to engage in physical recreation. However, some studies have indicated that parks are less plentiful in low-income areas than in affluent neighborhoods. 14 , 15 In addition, although parks are underutilized, 16

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Salomé Aubert, Julien Aucouturier, Jeremy Vanhelst, Alicia Fillon, Pauline Genin, Caroline Ganière, Corinne Praznoczy, Benjamin Larras, Julien Schipman, Martine Duclos and David Thivel

public institutions. Indeed, sports clubs and leagues can apply for grants funding the building and repair of sports infrastructure and equipment, 38 or for grants financing specific projects that target, among others, girls, people with disabilities, and low-income areas. 39 In addition, low- and

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Simone A. Tomaz, Alessandra Prioreschi, Estelle D. Watson, Joanne A. McVeigh, Dale E. Rae, Rachel A. Jones and Catherine E. Draper

South Africa that also showed very high volumes of objectively measured LMVPA (>500 min/d) and GMS proficiency (93% ranked as average or better) in preschool children from low-income settings (other than in Johannesburg), including an urban setting similar to low-income areas in Soweto. 20 However

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Joshua Woods

Blacks and Hispanics also tend to be located at greater distances from parks and green spaces. Even when nearness to parks is more equitable across low- and high-income neighborhoods, there are more facilities and resources available in the parks located in high-income areas than in those in low-income