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Monika Uys, Catherine Elizabeth Draper, Sharief Hendricks, Anniza de Villiers, Jean Fourie, Nelia Steyn and Estelle Victoria Lambert

Background:

The purpose of this study was to assess factors that influence physical activity (PA) levels during break-times in South African primary school children.

Methods:

The System for Observing Play and Leisure Activities in Youth (SOPLAY) was used to observe PA levels during break-times at low-income schools (4 intervention, 4 control). The intervention was based on action-planning including: school environment, curriculum, and family involvement. Categories of observed activity included Sedentary, Eating, Walking, or Vigorous PA. Contextual factors assessed included teacher supervision, equipment, and crowding. Chi-square tests were used to determine associations between PA levels and contextual factors.

Results:

In the 970 observations made, 31% of learners were sedentary, 14% were eating, 29% were walking, and 26% were engaged in vigorous PA. There were no differences in break-time PA between intervention and control groups (NS). With supervision, children were more likely to eat and less likely to do vigorous PA (P = .035). Playground crowding was associated with lower levels of vigorous activity and more sedentary behavior (P = .000).

Conclusions:

PA during break-time was adversely affected by over-crowding and lower with supervision. The results suggest that interventions may be targeted at the school policy environment to reduce these barriers to PA.

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Ronald C. Plotnikoff, Klaus Gebel and David Revalds Lubans

Background:

According to social-cognitive theory (SCT), self-efficacy affects health behavior both directly and indirectly by influencing how individuals perceive their environment. This study examines whether perceptions of home and school environment mediate the association between self-efficacy and physical activity (PA) and sedentary behavior in adolescent girls.

Methods:

Baseline data from the Nutrition and Enjoyable Activity for Teen Girls (NEAT) was used for this study. Grade 8 female students (n = 357) were recruited from 12 secondary schools located in low-income communities in the Hunter Region, New South Wales, Australia. PA was assessed using accelerometers, and sedentary behavior by self-report and accelerometers. Self-reported measures were used for perceived home and school environment and self-efficacy. Multilevel regression models were calculated to determine if the perceived environment mediated the relationship between self-efficacy with both PA and sedentary behavior.

Results:

The perceptions of the school and home environment did not mediate the relationship between PA self-efficacy and PA behavior or sedentary behavior.

Conclusion:

The mediated models were not supported for PA or sedentary behavior. However, other results of this paper may be helpful for future theory development and practice. More research is needed to understand behaviors in unique populations such as this.

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Shaina Riciputi, Meghan H. McDonough and Sarah Ullrich-French

Physical activity–based positive youth development (PYD) programs often aim to foster character development. This study examined youth perspectives of character development curricula and the impact these activities have on their lives within and beyond the program. This case study examined youth from low-income families in a physical activity–based summer PYD program that integrated one character concept (respect, caring, responsibility, trust) in each of 4 weeks. Participants (N = 24) included a cross section of age, gender, ethnicity, and past program experience. Semi-structured interviews were analyzed using inductive thematic analysis and constant comparative methods. Thirteen themes were grouped in four categories: building highquality reciprocal relationships; intrapersonal improvement; moral reasoning and understanding; and rejection, resistance, and compliance. The findings provide participant-centered guidance for understanding youth personal and social development through physical activity in ways that are meaningful to participants, which is particularly needed for youth in low-income communities with limited youth programming.

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Robert Medairos, Vicky Kang, Carissa Aboubakare, Matthew Kramer and Sheila Ann Dugan

Background:

This study aims to identify patterns of use and preferences related to technology platforms that could support physical activity (PA) programs in an underserved population.

Methods:

A 29-item questionnaire was administered at 5 health and wellness sites targeting low income communities in Chicago. Frequency tables were generated for Internet, cell phone, and social media use and preferences. Chi-squared analysis was used to evaluate differences across age and income groups.

Results:

A total of 291 individuals participated and were predominantly female (69.0%). Majority reported incomes less than $30,000 (72.9%) and identified as African American/Black/Caribbean (49.3%) or Mexican/Mexican American (34.3%). Most participants regularly used smartphones (63.2%) and the Internet (75.9%). Respondents frequently used Facebook (84.8%), and less commonly used Instagram (43.6%), and Twitter (20.0%). Free Internet-based exercise programs were the most preferred method to increase PA levels (31.6%), while some respondents (21.0%) thought none of the surveyed technology applications would help.

Conclusion:

Cell phone, Internet, and social media use is common among the surveyed underserved population. Technology preferences to increase PA levels varied, with a considerable number of respondents not preferring the surveyed technology platforms. Creating educational opportunities to increase awareness may maximize the effectiveness of technology-based PA interventions.

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Rachel A. Jones, Jacque Kelly, Dylan P. Cliff, Marijka Batterham and Anthony D. Okely

Objectives:

Single sex after-school physical activity programs show potential to prevent unhealthy weight gain. The aim of this study was to assess the acceptability and potential efficacy of single-sex after-school physical activity programs for overweight and at-risk children from low-income communities.

Design:

7-month, 2-arm parallel-group, RCT, conducted at an elementary school in a disadvantaged area in Wollongong, Australia (March-November 2010).

Methods:

20 boys and 17 girls were randomized to intervention (PA) or active comparison groups (HL). Primary outcomes included implementation, acceptability, percentage body fat and BMI z-score.

Results:

The PA programs were acceptable with high implementation and enjoyment rates. At 7 months postintervention girls in the PA group displayed greater changes in percentage body fat (adjust diff. = -1.70, [95% CI -3.25, -0.14]; d = -0.83) and BMI z-score (-0.19 [-0.36, -0.03]; d= -1.00). At 7 months boys in the PA group showed greater changes in waist circumference (-3.87 cm [-7.80, 0.15]; d= -0.90) and waist circumference z-score (-0.33 [-0.64, -0.03]; d= -0.98). For both boys’ and girls’ PA groups, changes in adiposity were not maintained at 12-month follow-up.

Conclusions:

Single-sex after-school physical activity programs are acceptable and potentially efficacious in preventing unhealthy weight gain among overweight and at-risk children. However improvements are hard to sustain once programs finish operating.

Open access

Catherine E. Draper, Simone A. Tomaz, Susan H. Bassett, Cora Burnett, Candice J. Christie, Colleen Cozett, Monique de Milander, Soezin Krog, Andries Monyeki, Niri Naidoo, Rowena Naidoo, Alessandra Prioreschi, Cheryl Walter, Estelle Watson and Estelle V. Lambert

. Accessed June 11, 2018. 7. Simons A , Koekemoer K , Van Niekerk A , Govender R . Parental supervision and discomfort with children walking to school in low-income communities in Cape Town, South Africa . Traffic Inj Prev . 2018 ; 19 ( 4 ): 391 – 398 . doi:10

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Viviene A. Temple, Dawn L. Lefebvre, Stephanie C. Field, Jeff R. Crane, Beverly Smith and Patti-Jean Naylor

skills such as catching, throwing, and kicking a ball are positively associated with overall physical activity levels among older children in low-income communities ( Cohen, Morgan, Plotnikoff, Callister, & Lubans, 2014 ) as well as moderate to vigorous physical activity levels of kindergarten children

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Cindy Lynn Salazar-Collier, Belinda Reininger, Rose Gowen, Arturo Rodriguez and Anna Wilkinson

identify factors that might inhibit or facilitate PA for event attendees. Of note, Ciclovías not only offer a good health return on the investment, 5 but also the events are free to attend, making them viable in low-income communities. In November 2012, Brownsville, TX, one of the poorest cities in the

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Rebecca E. Hasson

these resources require a fee for use (99%; Gordon-Larsen et al., 2006 ; Moore et al., 2008 ). Parks, however, are more equitably distributed across African American, Latino, and White neighborhoods ( Moore et al., 2008 ). However, some parks in ethnic-minority and low-income communities are viewed as

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Xiangli Gu, Senlin Chen and Xiaoxia Zhang

.E. , Morgan , P.J. , Plotnikoff , R.C. , Callister , R. , & Lubans , D.R. ( 2014 ). Fundamental movement skills and physical activity among children living in low-income communities: A crosssectional study . International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity, 11 ( 1 ), 49 – 57