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Wendell C. Taylor, Myron F. Floyd, Melicia C. Whitt-Glover and Joseph Brooks

Background:

Despite the importance of physical activity (PA) for good health, not all populations have equal access to PA facilities and resources. This disparity is an environmental justice (EJ) issue because of the negative impact on the health of low-income and racial/ethnic minorities.

Methods:

This paper reviews the first wave of the EJ movement, presents the second wave of the EJ movement, discusses the implications of adopting principles from the EJ movement to focus on research in parks and recreation services (PRS), and recommends future research directions.

Results:

Studies on EJ have documented the disproportionate burden of environmental challenges experienced by low-income and racial/ethnic minorities. With regard to PA, these communities face inadequate access to, quality of, financing for, and public involvement in recreation opportunities.

Conclusions:

EJ is a useful framework to facilitate collaborative research between public health and PRS to study racial/ethnic and socioeconomic disparities in PA.

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Maciej S. Buchowski, Charles E. Matthews, Sarah S. Cohen, Lisa B. Signorello, Jay H. Fowke, Margaret K. Hargreaves, David G. Schlundt and William J. Blot

Background:

Low physical activity (PA) is linked to cancer and other diseases prevalent in racial/ethnic minorities and low-income populations. This study evaluated the PA questionnaire (PAQ) used in the Southern Cohort Community Study, a prospective investigation of health disparities between African-American and white adults.

Methods:

The PAQ was administered upon entry into the cohort (PAQ1) and after 12–15 months (PAQ2) in 118 participants (40–60 year-old, 48% male, 74% African-American). Test-retest reliability (PAQ1 versus PAQ2) was assessed using Spearman correlations and the Wilcoxon signed rank test. Criterion validity of the PAQ was assessed via comparison with a PA monitor and a last-month PA survey (LMPAS), administered up to 4 times in the study period.

Results:

The PAQ test-retest reliability ranged from 0.25–0.54 for sedentary behaviors and 0.22–0.47 for active behaviors. The criterion validity for the PAQ compared with PA monitor ranged from 0.21–0.24 for sedentary behaviors and from 0.17–0.31 for active behaviors. There was general consistency in the magnitude of correlations between the PAQ and PA-monitor between African-Americans and whites.

Conclusions:

The SCCS-PAQ has fair to moderate test-retest reliability and demonstrated some evidence of criterion validity for ranking participants by their level of sedentary and active behaviors.

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Chia-Yuan Yu and Biyuan Wang

school (25.42%–14.11%) significantly decreased from 2009 to 2017, whereas the weighted percentage for undergraduate (45.49%–51.12%) and graduate (16.33%–31.85%) significantly increased. For the household income, the weighted percentage for low-income populations (<$15,000: 18.37%–10.83%; $15

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Michael C. Harding, Quinn D. Bott and Christopher E. Jonas

trails were most consistently associated with increased physical activity. 17 The path is also important because many previous analyses focused on expensive walkable neighborhoods, 5 but this intervention effected change in a primarily low-income population. Efforts in Hawai‘i to mitigate the obesity

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Alex S. Ribeiro, Luiz C. Pereira, Danilo R.P. Silva, Leandro dos Santos, Brad J. Schoenfeld, Denilson C. Teixeira, Edilson S. Cyrino and Dartagnan P. Guedes

between activity behavior and medication intake in a low-income population within a developing country. Sedentary behavior has a deleterious effect on cardiorespiratory fitness ( Eriksen, Gronbaek, Helge, & Tolstrup, 2016 ) and muscle mass and strength ( Bann et al., 2015 ), which are well known to have

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Claudia O. Alberico, J. Aaron Hipp and Rodrigo S. Reis

activity among women, a group at risk for physical inactivity. 15 However, there is no evidence showing to what extent FZ could help other groups at risk for inactivity, namely low-income populations. 15 Findings from studies examining neighborhood park and plazas indicate that lower-income areas have

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Rosalie Coolkens, Phillip Ward, Jan Seghers and Peter Iserbyt

setting to promote PA. Primary school as a context for PA promotion gives the opportunity to reach many children, including those not participating in out-of-school PA 10 and those from low-income populations. 11 It is estimated that for 80% of children, PA at school is the only opportunity to engage in

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Lia Grego Muniz de Araújo, Bruna Camilo Turi, Bruna Locci, Camila Angélica Asahi Mesquita, Natália Bonicontro Fonsati and Henrique Luiz Monteiro

, decreasing time spent on TV, computers, cell phones, and video games. As a possible solution, offering PA programs for the low-income population who use public health care services and do not have access to private sports clubs could be an alternative to overcome the physical inactivity problem among youth

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Deborah A. Cohen, Bing Han, Sujeong Park, Stephanie Williamson and Kathryn P. Derose

25% of adults who do not engage in routine leisure-time physical activity ( Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2014 ). There is a high level of screen time among low-income populations, which may be related to lower-income groups experiencing higher levels of stress, which can lead to

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Cecilia del Campo Vega, Veronica Tutte, Gustavo Bermudez and Diana C. Parra

underserved populations who would not normally have the money to purchase a gym membership; in this sense, they are serving segments of the population at higher risk for physical inactivity, such as low-income populations, women, and older populations. 4 In Uruguay, the rate of physical inactivity reaches 24