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Brice Guignard, Annie Rouard, Didier Chollet, Marco Bonifazi, Dario Dalla Vedova, John Hart and Ludovic Seifert

, were used to investigate human coordination dynamics during walking or running ( Donker, Beek, Wagenaar, & Mulder, 2001 ; O’Halloran, Hamill, McDermott, Remelius, & Van Emmerik, 2012 ; Wannier, Bastiaanse, Colombo, & Dietz, 2001 ). Coordination of the upper and lower limbs oscillators (i

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Janie L. Kelly and Alison R. Valier

make up anywhere from 20% to 65% of injuries. Furthermore, approximately 70% of overuse injuries in high school and college athletes occurred in the lower-extremity. 1 Lower limb overuse injuries (LLOIs) can occur anywhere in the lower-extremity, spanning from the feet to the thighs. 2 Medial tibial

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Mariam A. Ameer and Qassim I. Muaidi

response of the subject identical to the real environment by the effect of visual and auditory stimulus. The main objective of this study was to analyze the effect of ASS on the lower limb RT among young females. Methods Subjects A total of 60 healthy female university students volunteered for this study

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Lütfiye Akkurt, İpek Alemdaroğlu Gürbüz, Ayşe Karaduman and Öznur Tunca Yilmaz

examine the flexibility of the lower limbs, (2) to decide whether flexibility has an effect on performance parameters, and (3) to determine which muscles’ lack of flexibility contributes to the deterioration of performance in patients with DMD. Subjects and Methods Subjects Thirty children with DMD, whose

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James R. Broatch, David J. Bishop and Shona Halson

metabolism progressively increases with sprint duration and the number of sprints. 11 , 12 As such, components of aerobic metabolism like blood flow and oxygen uptake/delivery may be important determinants of repeated-sprint ability. Lower limb compression garments have previously been suggested to provide

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Norihide Sugisaki, Kai Kobayashi, Hiroyasu Tsuchie and Hiroaki Kanehisa

” muscles that are prime movers of the task and responsible for its performance. Sprinting is a motor task in which the body mass of a runner is rapidly propelled forward by a propulsive force produced by lower-limb joint torques. Thus, identifying the key lower-limb muscles in sprinting is essential to

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Ben Langley, Mary Cramp and Stewart C. Morrison

sagittal and transverse plane motions of the foot or upon more proximal joints. The assessment of how footwear influences lower limb kinematics may help to elucidate mechanisms by which injury risk can be mitigated, as hip and knee joint kinematics have been linked to the development of overuse running

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Charlie Bowen, Kristian Weaver, Nicola Relph and Matt Greig

prevalence in elite youth players has been shown to be higher than that observed in their senior peers, attributed to training exposure in young elite players who lack the skeletal maturity to tolerate the physical demands imposed. 2 Lower-limb musculoskeletal abnormalities, malalignment, and a reduced

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Michael S. Cherry, Sridhar Kota, Aaron Young and Daniel P. Ferris

Although there have been many lower limb robotic exoskeletons that have been tested for human walking, few devices have been tested for assisting running. It is possible that a pseudo-passive elastic exoskeleton could benefit human running without the addition of electrical motors due to the spring-like behavior of the human leg. We developed an elastic lower limb exoskeleton that added stiffness in parallel with the entire lower limb. Six healthy, young subjects ran on a treadmill at 2.3 m/s with and without the exoskeleton. Although the exoskeleton was designed to provide ~50% of normal leg stiffness during running, it only provided 24% of leg stiffness during testing. The difference in added leg stiffness was primarily due to soft tissue compression and harness compliance decreasing exoskeleton displacement during stance. As a result, the exoskeleton only supported about 7% of the peak vertical ground reaction force. There was a significant increase in metabolic cost when running with the exoskeleton compared with running without the exoskeleton (ANOVA, P < .01). We conclude that 2 major roadblocks to designing successful lower limb robotic exoskeletons for human running are human-machine interface compliance and the extra lower limb inertia from the exoskeleton.

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Nicola Giovanelli, Filippo Vaccari, Mirco Floreani, Enrico Rejc, Jasmine Copetti, Marco Garra, Lea Biasutti and Stefano Lazzer

maintained during the effort. 17 In turn, our research group has also observed that Cr is affected by muscle power of lower limb extensors. 17 Hence, the primary objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of SMFR treatment on Cr. In addition, we evaluated the effects of SMFR on lower limbs’ muscle