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Charles P. Gabel and Simon Mendoza

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Andrew G Jameson, Stephen J Kinzey, and Jeffrey S Hallam


Cryotherapy is commonly used in the care of acute and chronic injuries. It decreases pain, reduces swelling, and causes vasoconstriction of blood vessels. Its detrimental effects on motor activity might predispose physically active individuals to further injury.


To examine the effects of cryotherapy on vertical-ground-reaction-force (VGRF) during a 2-legged landing from a 2-legged targeted vertical jump.


2 × 4 MANOVA with repeated measures.


Biomechanics laboratory.


10 men, means: 22.40 ± 1.26 years, 76.01 ± 26.95 kg, 182.88 ± 6.88 cm.


VGRF during landing from a targeted vertical jump (90% of maximum) was measured before and after four 20-minute cryotherapy treatments.


There were no significant differences in VGRF as a result of cryotherapy.


Under the constraints of this study there is no evidence that returning to activity immediately after cryotherapy predisposes an athlete to injury because of a change in VGRF.

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Lynn Snyder-Mackler

Closed kinetic chain exercise is a common component of lower extremity rehabilitation. It has virtually replaced open kinetic chain exercise in the treatment of some conditions. In this paper, anatomy and physiology as they relate to closed chain exercise are examined to elucidate its unique contributions to rehabilitation. Claims made about the specificity, functionality, and safety of closed kinetic chain exercise are discussed. Muscle action, the stretch–shortening cycle, joint position sense, and clinical cases are used to illustrate the distinct role of closed kinetic chain exercise in rehabilitation.

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Brent I. Smith, Denice Curtis, and Carrie L. Docherty

also validated as a means to detect self-reported functional deficits in patients with ankle instability. 41 A percentage was determined using a 100-point scale. Rehabilitation Procedures Participants in both training and control groups did not engage in any new lower-extremity rehabilitation or