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Ben Langley, Mary Cramp and Stewart C. Morrison

sagittal and transverse plane motions of the foot or upon more proximal joints. The assessment of how footwear influences lower limb kinematics may help to elucidate mechanisms by which injury risk can be mitigated, as hip and knee joint kinematics have been linked to the development of overuse running

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AmirAli Jafarnezhadgero, Morteza Madadi-Shad, Christopher McCrum and Kiros Karamanidis

objective of this study was to investigate the effects of corrective training using elastic resistance bands on landing GRF characteristics and lower limb kinematics in older adults with genu valgus. It was hypothesized that (a) GRF components, including peak GRF components, in three dimensions, would be

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Rodrigo de M. Baldon, Daniel F.M. Lobato, Leonardo Furlan and Fábio Serrão

The purpose of this study was to compare lower limb kinematics between genders during stair descent. Fifteen females and fifteen males who were healthy and active were included in this study. The lower limb kinematics (pelvis, femur and knee) in the coronal and transversal planes were assessed during stair descent at 30°, 40°, 50° and 60° of knee flexion. The study found that females showed greater knee medial rotation for all the knee flexion angles (P = .02−.001), greater femoral adduction (P = .01 for all variables), with exception for 30° (P = .13), and greater femoral lateral rotation at 60° (P = .04). Females also showed a trend to have greater knee valgus at all the knee flexion angles (P = .06−.11) as well as less contralateral pelvis elevation at 50° and 60° (P = .10 and .12, respectively). This study showed that females carry out the stair descent with a lower limb alignment that might predispose them to develop overuse knee injuries, such as the iliotibial band syndrome and patellofemoral pain syndrome. Further prospective investigations should be carried out to verify whether these variables are factors that could predict these knee injuries.

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Rodrigo de Marche Baldon, Daniel Ferreira Moreira Lobato, Lívia Pinheiro Carvalho, Paulo Roberto Pereira Santiago, Benedito Galvão Benze and Fábio Viadanna Serrão

The purposes of this study were to compare lower-limb kinematics between genders, and determine the relationships among eccentric hip abductor and lateral rotator torques and lower-limb kinematics. The movements of the pelvis, femur, and knee were calculated for 16 women and 16 men during the single-leg squat. Eccentric hip abductor and lateral rotator torques were measured using an isokinetic dynamometer. The results showed that women had greater contralateral pelvic depression, femur adduction, and knee abduction than men. The eccentric hip abductor and lateral rotator torques were correlated with coronal plane femur and knee movements in the overall sample. When the genders were analyzed separately, it was observed that women with greater eccentric hip abductor torque exhibited less femur adduction and femur medial rotation, and greater knee adduction excursion. No significant relationship was observed between the isokinetic and kinematic variables in the male group. The differences between the genders help to explain the greater rate of knee disorders observed in women. Moreover, the eccentric hip abduction action seemed to be more important in women to control the lower-limb movements.

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Lewis J. Vizard, Gareth Peden and Maximilian M. Wdowski

Key Points ▸ Lower-limb kinematic and kinetic asymmetries may transfer between dynamic movements. ▸ Individual-level asymmetries present in lower-limb kinematics and kinetics during sprint running and countermovement jumps. Rugby Union is an intermittent contact sport that exposes players to short

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Stephanie Chester, Audrey Zucker-Levin, Daniel A. Melcher, Shelby A. Peel, Richard J. Bloomer and Max R. Paquette

The purpose of this study was to compare knee and hip joint kinematics previously associated with anterior knee pain and metabolic cost among conditions including treadmill running (TR), standard elliptical (SE), and lateral elliptical (LE) in healthy runners. Joint kinematics and metabolic parameters of 16 runners were collected during all 3 modalities using motion capture and a metabolic system, respectively. Sagittal knee range of motion (ROM) was greater in LE (P < .001) and SE (P < .001) compared with TR. Frontal and transverse plane hip ROM were greater in LE compared with SE (P < .001) and TR (P < .001). Contralateral pelvic drop ROM was smaller in SE compared with TR (P = .002) and LE (P = .005). Similar oxygen consumption was found during LE and TR (P = .39), but LE (P < .001) and TR (P < .001) required greater oxygen consumption than SE. Although LE yields similar metabolic cost to TR and produces hip kinematics that may help strengthen hip abductors, greater knee flexion and abduction during LE may increase symptoms in runners with anterior knee pain. The findings suggest that research on the implications of elliptical exercise for injured runners is needed.

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Thomas Haugen, Jørgen Danielsen, Leif Olav Alnes, David McGhie, Øyvind Sandbakk and Gertjan Ettema

phase in athletics sprinting: three elite athlete case studies . J Sports Sci . 2014 ; 32 : 738 – 746 . PubMed doi:10.1080/02640414.2013.849000 10.1080/02640414.2013.849000 24359568 6. Bezodis NE , Salo AI , Trewartha G . Relationships between lower-limb kinematics and block phase performance

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Anna C. Severin, Brendan J. Burkett, Mark R. McKean, Aaron N. Wiegand and Mark G.L. Sayers

ethics approval. Instrumentation This study used six 100-Hz inertial sensors (Nanotrak; Catapult Sports, Docklands, Australia) to track trunk, pelvis, and lower limb kinematics. Inertial sensors are a validated tool for kinematic analyses ( Cuesta-Vargas, Galán-Mercant, & Williams, 2010 ; Steins, Dawes

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Lukas D. Linde, Jessica Archibald, Eve C. Lampert and John Z. Srbely

.1177/0363546504269591 15722287 10.1177/0363546504269591 3. Graci V , Van Dillen LR , Salsich GB . Gender differences in trunk, pelvis and lower limb kinematics during a single leg squat . Gait Posture . 2012 ; 36 ( 3 ): 461 – 466 . PubMed ID: 22591790 doi:10.1016/j.gaitpost.2012.04.006 10.1016/j.gaitpost.2012

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Guilherme S. Nunes, Débora Faria Wolf, Daniel Augusto dos Santos, Marcos de Noronha and Fábio Viadanna Serrão

lower-limb kinematics, and hip and knee kinetics during single-leg squats and jumps in females with PFP. A subgroup of asymptomatic individuals was also included as a control situation to investigate whether the mobilization technique could influence the kinematics and kinetics of people without PFP