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Teun van Erp, Marco Hoozemans, Carl Foster and Jos J. de Koning

variations of TRIMP used in literature. One of them is Lucia TRIMP (luTRIMP), which is a summation method based on HR zones and is often used in professional road cycling. 9 – 11 In 1986, Ulrich Schoberer developed the first power meter for the outdoor bicycle, bringing a new power-based training approach to

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Teun van Erp, Carl Foster and Jos J. de Koning

of exercise. Multiple studies have validated TL based on HR by correlating TL with other measurements of TL or with one of the variations developed for TRIMP. 10 One of the variations of TRIMP is Lucia’s training impulse (LuTRIMP), which has been widely used in professional road cycling. 11 – 13

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Dajo Sanders, Grant Abt, Matthijs K.C. Hesselink, Tony Myers and Ibrahim Akubat


To assess the dose-response relationships between different training-load methods and aerobic fitness and performance in competitive road cyclists.


Training data from 15 well-trained competitive cyclists were collected during a 10-wk (December–March) preseason training period. Before and after the training period, participants underwent a laboratory incremental exercise test with gas-exchange and lactate measures and a performance assessment using an 8-min time trial (8MT). Internal training load was calculated using Banister TRIMP, Edwards TRIMP, individualized TRIMP (iTRIMP), Lucia TRIMP (luTRIMP), and session rating of perceived exertion (sRPE). External load was measured using Training Stress Score (TSS).


Large to very large relationships (r = .54–.81) between training load and changes in submaximal fitness variables (power at 2 and 4 mmol/L) were observed for all training-load calculation methods. The strongest relationships with changes in aerobic fitness variables were observed for iTRIMP (r = .81 [95% CI .51–.93, r = .77 [95% CI .43–.92]) and TSS (r = .75 [95% CI .31–.93], r = .79 [95% CI .40–.94]). The strongest dose-response relationships with changes in the 8MT test were observed for iTRIMP (r = .63 [95% CI .17–.86]) and luTRIMP (r = .70 [95% CI .29–.89).


Training-load quantification methods that integrate individual physiological characteristics have the strongest dose-response relationships, suggesting this to be an essential factor in the quantification of training load in cycling.

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Richard J. Taylor, Dajo Sanders, Tony Myers, Grant Abt, Celia A. Taylor and Ibrahim Akubat

bTRIMP (iTRIMP Software, Training Impulse Ltd, UK), and bespoke spreadsheets were used for the calculation of Edwards TRIMP (eTRIMP) and Lucia TRIMP (luTRIMP). bTRIMP was calculated based on training duration, HR, and a weighting factor using the formula bTRIMP = training duration (min) × ΔHR × 0.64 e 1