across a 7-day period was not in accordance with the athletic guidelines of the time ( Reeves & Collins, 2003 ). Furthermore, it has been reported that the macronutrient percentage of energy intake (EI) in elite players was not of an optimal proportion for an athletic population, with players consuming
Cathal Cassidy, Kieran Collins and Marcus Shortall
Ahmed Ismaeel, Suzy Weems and Darryn S. Willoughby
diet without altering the relative distribution of macronutrients ( Sandoval & Heyward, 1991 ). Because of the expansion of bodybuilding to include greater than just a relatively small number of individuals, new dietary approaches have recently become popularized. For example, a new strategy, popularly
Rachel Lohman, Amelia Carr and Dominique Condo
investigation were to (a) quantify energy, macronutrient, and micronutrient intake in Australian football players; (b) compare nutritional intakes to current recommendations; and (c) quantify sports nutrition knowledge in Australian football players. The secondary aim was to investigate the differences in
V.O. Onywera, F.K. Kiplamai, P.J. Tuitoek, M.K. Boit and Y.P. Pitsiladis
The food and macronutrient intake of elite Kenyan runners was compared to recommendations for endurance athletes. Estimated energy intake (EI: 2987 ± 293 kcal; mean ± standard deviation) was lower than energy expenditure (EE: 3605 ± 119 kcal; P < 0.001) and body mass (BM: 58.9 ± 2.7 kg vs. 58.3 ± 2.6 kg; P < 0.001) was reduced over the 7-d intense training period. Diet was high in carbohydrate (76.5%, 10.4 g/kg BM per day) and low in fat (13.4%). Protein intake (10.1%; 1.3 g/kg BM per day) matched recommendations for protein intake. Fluid intake was modest and mainly in the form of water (1113 ± 269 mL; 0.34 ± 0.16 mL/kcal) and tea (1243 ± 348 mL). Although the diet met most recommendations for endurance athletes for macronutrient intake, it remains to be determined if modifying energy balance and fluid intake will enhance the performance of elite Kenyan runners.
Katherine Elizabeth Black, Alistair David Black and Dane Frances Baker
macronutrient intakes ( American College of Sports Medicine et al., 2000 ; “Nutrition for football: the FIFA/F-MARC Consensus Conference,” 2006 ). However, in comparison to other team sports such as soccer or hockey, rugby players tend to be heavier, for example, the mean body mass in a study of elite
C. Peter Schokman, Ingrid H.E. Rutishauser and Roger J. Wallace
This study describes pre- and postcompetition mean energy and macronutrient intakes of 40 elite Australian Football players. Carbohydrate intake, expressed both as a percentage of total energy intake (En %) and as grams per kilogram of body mass (g/kg BM), was significantly less (51.7% En and 4.8 g/kg BM, p < . 001) than minimum recommendations for endurance athletes (60% En and 6 g/kg BM). Pregame carbohydrate intake (53.6% En) was significantly greater (p < .01) than postgame (49.7% En). However, expressed as g/kg BM, pre- and postgame macronutrient intakes did not differ significantly. Protein and fat intakes (as g/kg BM) fell within guidelines, whereas energy intake (13.2 MJ/ day or 153.8 kJ/kg BM) was lower than expected. Results suggest that for athletes engaging in endurance team sports where body mass and energy requirements vary considerably, carbohydrate recommendations are more appropriately expressed as g/kg BM rather than En %.
Liam Anderson, Robert J. Naughton, Graeme L. Close, Rocco Di Michele, Ryland Morgans, Barry Drust and James P. Morton
The daily distribution of macronutrient intake can modulate aspects of training adaptations, performance and recovery. We therefore assessed the daily distribution of macronutrient intake (as assessed using food diaries supported by the remote food photographic method and 24-hr recalls) of professional soccer players (n = 6) of the English Premier League during a 7-day period consisting of two match days and five training days. On match days, average carbohydrate (CHO) content of the prematch (<1.5 g·kg-1 body mass) and postmatch (1 g·kg-1 body mass) meals (in recovery from an evening kick-off) were similar (p > .05) though such intakes were lower than contemporary guidelines considered optimal for prematch CHO intake and postmatch recovery. On training days, we observed a skewed and hierarchical approach (p < .05 for all comparisons) to protein feeding such that dinner (0.8 g·kg-1)>lunch (0.6 g·kg-1)>breakfast (0.3 g·kg-1)>evening snacks (0.1 g·kg-1). We conclude players may benefit from consuming greater amounts of CHO in both the prematch and postmatch meals so as to increase CHO availability and maximize rates of muscle glycogen resynthesis, respectively. Furthermore, attention should also be given to ensuring even daily distribution of protein intake so as to potentially promote components of training adaptation.
Bjoern Geesmann, Joachim Mester and Karsten Koehler
Athletes competing in ultra-endurance events are advised to meet energy requirements, to supply appropriate amounts of carbohydrates (CHO), and to be adequately hydrated before and during exercise. In practice, these recommendations may not be followed because of satiety, gastrointestinal discomfort, and fatigue. The purpose of the study was to assess energy balance, macronutrient intake and hydration status before and during a 1,230-km bike marathon. A group of 14 well-trained participants (VO2max: 63.2 ± 3.3 ml/kg/min) completed the marathon after 42:47 hr. Ad libitum food and fluid intake were monitored throughout the event. Energy expenditure (EE) was derived from power output and urine and blood markers were collected before the start, after 310, 618, and 921 km, after the finish, and 12 hr after the finish. Energy intake (EI; 19,749 ± 4,502 kcal) was lower than EE (25,303 ± 2,436 kcal) in 12 of 14 athletes. EI and CHO intake (average: 57.1 ± 17.7 g/hr) decreased significantly after km 618 (p < .05). Participants ingested on average 392 ± 85 ml/hr of fluid, but fluid intake decreased after km 618 (p < .05). Hydration appeared suboptimal before the start (urine specific gravity: 1.022 ± 0.010 g/ml) but did not change significantly throughout the event. The results show that participants failed to maintain in energy balance and that CHO and fluid intake dropped below recommended values during the second half of the bike marathon. Individual strategies to overcome satiety and fatigue may be necessary to improve eating and drinking behavior during prolonged ultra-endurance exercise.
Brian D. Roy, Katherine Luttmer, Michael J. Bosman and Mark A. Tarnopolsky
The purpose of this investigation was to determine the influence of post-exercise macronutrient intake on weight loss, protein metabolism, and endurance exercise performance during a period of increased training volume. Ten healthy young female endurance athletes performed 4 60-min bouts of cycle ergometry at ~65% of V̇O2peak on 4 days (day 1, 3, 4, and 6) during 2 separate 1-week periods. On day 7. participants performed a ride to exhaustion at ~75% of V̇O2peak. One of the 7-day periods served as a control condition, where a placebo beverage was consumed following the exercise bouts on days 1, 3, 4, and 6 (CON). During the other 7-day protocol (POST), participants consumed a predefined formula beverage with added carbohydrate following the exercise bouts on days 1. 3,4, and 6. Energy intake and macronutrient proportions were the same between the 2 trials; the only difference was the timing at which the macronutrients were consumed. Calculated fat oxidation was greater during exercise on day 6 during POST as compared to CON (p < .05). Glucose and insulin concentrations were significantly higher (p < .05) following exercise during POST as compared to CON. There was a trend (p = .06) for nitrogen balance to be greater on days 5 and 6 with POST as compared to CON. Time to exhaustion during exercise on day 7 was longer during POST as compared to CON (p < .05). POST resulted in a maintenance of body weight during the 7-day protocol, while there was a significant (p < .05) reduction with CON. It was concluded that post-exercise macronutrient intake following endurance exercise can attenuate reductions in body weight and improve nitrogen balance during 7 days of increased energy expenditure. Importantly, post-exercise supplementation improved time to exhaustion during a subsequent bout of endurance exercise.
Hani Kopetschny, David Rowlands, David Popovich and Jasmine Thomson
, creating several nutritional challenges with respect to energy and macronutrient intake not only in achieving sufficient intakes, but also in periodizing these intakes to match changing training loads ( Drenowatz et al., 2012 ; Haff, 2004 ; Loucks et al., 2011 ; Stubbs et al., 2004 ). Despite the