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Rachel Cholerton, Helen Quirk, Jeff Breckon, and Joanne Butt

experiences of older adults considered to be continuing or “maintaining” a sport, especially adapted sports, such as walking football. Maintenance of health behavior has been defined as a “sustained behavior during the period of observation that meets a threshold believed to be necessary to improve health or

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Matthew Jenkins, Elaine A. Hargreaves, and Ken Hodge

Globally, many individuals fail to maintain physical activity (PA), and this is recognized as negatively contributing to public health ( World Health Organization, 2018 ). Therefore, investigating factors that support PA maintenance is an important endeavour ( Anderson, Mota, & Pietro, 2016 ). The

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Kara L. Gavin, Julian Wolfson, Mark Pereira, Nancy Sherwood, and Jennifer A. Linde

During the maintenance phase following weight loss programs, when intervention support for weight loss behaviors taper off, individuals are at higher risk for weight gain. Predicting and promoting successful maintenance is challenging and few randomized controlled trials have been conducted to

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Urte Scholz, Falko F. Sniehotta, and Ralf Schwarzer

During the process of health behavior change, individuals pass different phases characterized by different demands and challenges that have to be mastered. To overcome these demands successfully, phase-specific self-efficacy beliefs are important. The present study distinguishes between task self-efficacy, maintenance self-efficacy, and recovery self-efficacy. These phase-specific beliefs were studied in a sample of 484 cardiac patients during rehabilitation treatment and at follow-up 2 and 4 months after discharge to predict physical exercise at 4 and 12 months follow-up. The three phase-specific self-efficacies showed sufficient discriminant validity and allowed for differential predictions of intentions and behavior. Persons in the maintenance phase benefited more from maintenance self-efficacy in terms of physical exercise than persons not in the maintenance phase. Those who had to resume their physical exercise after a health related break profited more from recovery self-efficacy in terms of physical exercise than persons who were continuously active. Implications for possible interventions are discussed.

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Kwame J.A. Agyemang, Brennan K. Berg, and Rhema D. Fuller

literature highlights individuals’ interactions with institutional rules and norms and the effect this has on the institution (see Barley, 1986 ; Lawrence & Suddaby, 2006 ). As such, questions centering on the use of maintenance work to preserve institutions are important. Accordingly, we employ a

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Julie Freedman, Sally Hage, and Paula A. Quatromoni

/or exercise disorder in the context of sport in order to identify the onset and maintenance factors that may be unique to this demographic. Methods Participants For this phenomenological study, eight eligible participants completed telephone interviews. All participants identified as male were current or

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Bradley W. Young, Nikola Medic, Patricia L. Weir, and Janet L. Starkes

Researchers have contended that patterns of age-related decline are not necessarily due to age, but rather to disuse, or declining practice (Bortz, 1982; Ericsson, 2000; Maharam, Bauman, Kalman, Skolnik, & Perle, 1999). A regression approach was used to examine age and training variables as predictors of 10-km running performance between 40 and 59 years of age. A sample of 30 Masters runners (M age = 50.1 years, M 10-km time = 39:19) reported data for ongoing training, cumulative running in the past 5 years, and cumulative running earlier in a career. In Analysis 1, ongoing training variables explained more variance in performance than age alone, and reduced the unique variance attributable to age in a combined model. In Analysis 2, findings were replicated using past cumulative running variables and age; running in the past 5 years explained more unique variance than age alone. Discussion focuses on how findings relate to the selective maintenance account (Krampe & Ericsson, 1996), how various aspects of training help to preserve performance in aging populations, and recommendations for future research.

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Lauren B. Raine, Mark R. Scudder, Brian J. Saliba, Arthur F. Kramer, and Charles Hillman

Background:

There is a growing trend of inactivity among children, which may not only result in poorer physical health but also poorer cognitive health. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between aerobic fitness and proactive and reactive cognitive control using a continuous performance task (CPT).

Methods:

Forty-eight 9- to 10-year-old children (n = 24 higher fit [HF] and n = 24 lower fit [LF]) performed an AX-CPT requiring them to respond to target cue-probe pairs (AX) or nontarget pairs (AY, BX, BY) under 2 different trial duration conditions, which modulated working memory demands.

Results:

Across trials and conditions, HF children had greater accuracy than LF children. For target trials, the long duration resulted in lower accuracy than the short duration. For nontarget trials, an interaction of duration and trial was observed, indicating that the long duration resulted in decreased BX and BY accuracy relative to the short duration. AY trials had greater accuracy during the long duration compared with the short duration.

Conclusions:

These data suggest that fitness may modulate cognitive control strategies during tasks requiring context updating and maintenance, key components of working memory and further support aerobic fitness as a marker of cognitive and brain health in children.

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Spencer Riehl, Ryan Snelgrove, and Jonathon Edwards

majority of organizational change literature, which has studied implemented change initiatives. However, only focusing on initiatives that have been implemented limits the insight gained into the mechanisms that maintain the status quo. Nite ( 2017 ) argued that “maintenance agents [e.g., OMHA] would

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Nadja Willinger, James Steele, Lou Atkinson, Gary Liguori, Alfonso Jimenez, Steve Mann, and Elizabeth Horton

those of a large magnitude, may be driven by segments of the population. Thus, it is important to interpret the apparent effectiveness of interventions alongside the proportions of those meeting recommended levels of PA and whom adhere to and are retained in interventions. Adoption and maintenance of PA