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Stewart G. Trost and Jan Hutley

Teaching adolescents to use self-management strategies may be an effective approach to promoting lifelong physical activity (PA). However, the extent to which adolescents use self-management strategies and their impact on current PA have not been studied previously. The aims of this study were 1) to describe the prevalence of self-management strategy use in adolescents; and 2) to determine relationships between self-management strategy use, PA self-efficacy, and PA participation. 197 students completed questionnaires measuring use of self-management strategies, self-efficacy, and PA behavior. The most prevalent self-management strategies (>30%) were thinking about the benefits of PA, making PA more enjoyable, choosing activities that are convenient, setting aside time to do PA, and setting goals to do PA. Fewer than 10% reported rewarding oneself for PA, writing planned activities in a book or calendar, and keeping charts of PA. Use of self-management strategies was associated with increased self-efficacy (r = .47, p < .001) and higher levels of PA (r = .34 p < .001). A 1-unit difference in self-management strategy scores was associated with a ~fourfold increase in the probability of being active (OR = 3.7, 95% CI = 1.8-7.4). Although strongly associated with PA, a relatively small percentage of adolescents routinely use self-management strategies.

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Tom Cole-Hunter, Lidia Morawska and Colin Solomon

Background:

An increase in bicycle commuting participation may improve public health and traffic congestion in cities. Information on air pollution exposure (such as perception, symptoms, and risk management) contributes to the responsible promotion of bicycle commuting participation.

Methods:

To determine perceptions, symptoms, and willingness for specific exposure risk management strategies of exposure to air pollution, a questionnaire-based cross-sectional investigation was conducted with adult bicycle commuters (n = 153; age = 41 ± 11 years; 28% female).

Results:

Frequency of acute respiratory signs and symptoms were positively associated with in-commute and postcommute compared with precommute time periods (P < .05); there was greater positive association with respiratory disorder compared with healthy, and female compared with male, participants. The perception (but not signs or symptoms) of in-commute exposure to air pollution was positively associated with the estimated level of in-commute proximity to motorized traffic. The majority of participants indicated a willingness (which varied with health status and gender) to adopt risk management strategies (with desired features) if shown to be appropriate and effective.

Conclusions:

While acute signs and symptoms of air pollution exposure are indicated with bicycle commuting, and more so in susceptible individuals, there is willingness to manage exposure risk by adopting effective strategies with desired features.

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Michael S. Willett, Damon P.S. Andrew and Mary E. Rudisill

Market pressures and external demands to sustain access, improve cost management and accountability, and increase productivity continue to persist in departments and schools of kinesiology. Confidence in the sustainability of an institution’s business model is eroding. To address these challenges, one possible approach for enhancing institutional performance, accountability, and stability is to revise an institution’s management process or budgeting model. Indicators suggest that many institutions are changing budget models to an incentive-based budgeting (IBB) system (i.e., responsibility-centered management [RCM]). The management strategies reviewed in this article are important for higher education budget administrators that implement, or are considering implementing, an IBB system as a means for assessing outcomes or institutional decision-making.

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Jennifer L. Roney, Melissa L. Yamashiro and Charlie A. Hicks-Little

Edited by Joe J. Piccininni

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Shaun M. Anderson and Matthew M. Martin

MLB faces in getting African Americans interested and involved with the game of baseball. Specifically, we examined MLB’s social-outreach programs as a social-responsibility and relationship-management strategy using corporate social responsibility (CSR) and relationship-management theory (RMT

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Brian A. Turner

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Michelle L. Weber, Kelsey J. Picha and Tamara C. Valovich McLeod

Calcaneal apophysitis, or Sever's disease, is common among physically active youth between the ages of 8-15. This condition is related to skeletal growth during maturation and relief often comes once growth is complete. However, it is not feasible to limit participation in physical activity until growth ceases; therefore, it is important to determine effective interventions to regulate pain while continuing participation. A search of the literature yielded nine studies that met the inclusion criteria and were included for data analysis. Within these publications, many treatment methods were suggested, including nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), taping, orthoses, heel lifts, stretching, activity modification, and ice. However, few of the treatment options were compared with a control group. Analysis revealed that clinicians should provide treatments with caution when treating patients suffering from Sever's disease, understanding that strong evidence is not supportive of one treatment option alone. Data are limited for individual treatments related to calcaneal apophysitis and more research in this area is warranted. Clinicians should work with patients on an individual basis to determine if one form of treatment provides a reduction of pain and allows that patient to continue with activity.

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Brooke Elizabeth Harris-Reeves, James Skinner, Peter Milburn and Greg Reddan

Sport coaching is a multifaceted profession with many responsibilities. Coaches can have a profound effect on athletes that can be both positive and negative. Coaches have the ability to motivate athletes and increase their self-esteem. Conversely, negative effects of coaching may include athlete drop-outs, injuries, and loss of confidence. Coaches need to manage the coaching environment and create positive surroundings to ensure that athletes achieve their optimum potential. Managing a coaching environment refers to how coaches establish and maintain order. This paper explores the literature on behavior management in education and sport settings and aims to contribute to sport-coaching knowledge. General coaching tips for managing athlete behavior are suggested along with examples of potential coaching strategies.

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Jeffrey A. Graham and Marlene A. Dixon

Work–family balance in sport has until this point largely been characterized as an issue for women. Current societal trends, however, suggest that men also struggle with balancing work and family responsibilities. Using theoretical frameworks from both conflict and enrichment, this study examined the ways that fathers who are coaches experience and manage the work–life interface. Twenty-four men who are fathers and high school varsity head coaches were interviewed for this study. The respondents discussed the day-to-day challenges and coping strategies they utilized to manage their work–life interface. Ultimately, five themes emerged from the data, including (a) coaching as more than an occupation, (b) experiences of conflict and strain, (c) coping strategies, (d) nonutilization of organizational supports, and (e) experiences of enrichment. These findings suggest that, indeed, men struggle with balancing competing role demands. However, the findings also suggest that men are utilizing diverse and creative approaches for managing their fathering and coaching roles, resulting in meaningful experiences of enrichment stemming from both coaching and fathering.

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Christine Dallaire, Louise Lemyre, Daniel Krewski and Laura Beth Gibbs

In Canada, as in other neo-liberal states, a physically active lifestyle is discursively constructed as a moral activity, whereas a sedentary lifestyle is criticized as a failure to take charge of one’s health (Bercovitz, 2000; Lupton, 1997). This study aims to understand how Canadian men and women articulate the discursive connections between physical activity and health risks and how those connections are reflected in their reported behaviors. Analysis shows that some of the 37 men and 36 women interviewed not only “talk the talk” regarding physical activity, they also claim to lead an active lifestyle. However, “active” participants were disciplined into frequent physical activity not simply by the discursive effects of the fitness mantra promising better health, but because they enjoyed it. Conversely, the not-active-enough participants were unwilling to fully comply with the requirements of the fitness discourses because they found no pleasure in “exercise.” Despite adopting physical activity as a key strategy to manage their health risks, interviews revealed that the latter group were not docile bodies (Foucault, 1995).