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Oliver Leis, Matthew Watson, Laura Swettenham, Ismael Pedraza-Ramirez, and Franziska Lautenbach

With emerging evidence suggesting that professional esports players experience a range of psychological demands relating to their performance (e.g.,  Leis et al., 2022 ; Poulus et al., 2020 , 2022b ; Smith et al., 2019 ), there is a need for evidence-based stress management strategies in esports

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Anthony Battaglia and Gretchen Kerr

as a behavior management strategy, removing playing time when athletes are not behaving in an expected or desired way such as not paying attention, not devoting sufficient energy or effort, inadequate performances, or when they violate team rules such as being late to practice or breaking curfew

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Stewart G. Trost and Jan Hutley

Teaching adolescents to use self-management strategies may be an effective approach to promoting lifelong physical activity (PA). However, the extent to which adolescents use self-management strategies and their impact on current PA have not been studied previously. The aims of this study were 1) to describe the prevalence of self-management strategy use in adolescents; and 2) to determine relationships between self-management strategy use, PA self-efficacy, and PA participation. 197 students completed questionnaires measuring use of self-management strategies, self-efficacy, and PA behavior. The most prevalent self-management strategies (>30%) were thinking about the benefits of PA, making PA more enjoyable, choosing activities that are convenient, setting aside time to do PA, and setting goals to do PA. Fewer than 10% reported rewarding oneself for PA, writing planned activities in a book or calendar, and keeping charts of PA. Use of self-management strategies was associated with increased self-efficacy (r = .47, p < .001) and higher levels of PA (r = .34 p < .001). A 1-unit difference in self-management strategy scores was associated with a ~fourfold increase in the probability of being active (OR = 3.7, 95% CI = 1.8-7.4). Although strongly associated with PA, a relatively small percentage of adolescents routinely use self-management strategies.

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Michael S. Willett, Damon P.S. Andrew, and Mary E. Rudisill

Market pressures and external demands to sustain access, improve cost management and accountability, and increase productivity continue to persist in departments and schools of kinesiology. Confidence in the sustainability of an institution’s business model is eroding. To address these challenges, one possible approach for enhancing institutional performance, accountability, and stability is to revise an institution’s management process or budgeting model. Indicators suggest that many institutions are changing budget models to an incentive-based budgeting (IBB) system (i.e., responsibility-centered management [RCM]). The management strategies reviewed in this article are important for higher education budget administrators that implement, or are considering implementing, an IBB system as a means for assessing outcomes or institutional decision-making.

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Tom Cole-Hunter, Lidia Morawska, and Colin Solomon


An increase in bicycle commuting participation may improve public health and traffic congestion in cities. Information on air pollution exposure (such as perception, symptoms, and risk management) contributes to the responsible promotion of bicycle commuting participation.


To determine perceptions, symptoms, and willingness for specific exposure risk management strategies of exposure to air pollution, a questionnaire-based cross-sectional investigation was conducted with adult bicycle commuters (n = 153; age = 41 ± 11 years; 28% female).


Frequency of acute respiratory signs and symptoms were positively associated with in-commute and postcommute compared with precommute time periods (P < .05); there was greater positive association with respiratory disorder compared with healthy, and female compared with male, participants. The perception (but not signs or symptoms) of in-commute exposure to air pollution was positively associated with the estimated level of in-commute proximity to motorized traffic. The majority of participants indicated a willingness (which varied with health status and gender) to adopt risk management strategies (with desired features) if shown to be appropriate and effective.


While acute signs and symptoms of air pollution exposure are indicated with bicycle commuting, and more so in susceptible individuals, there is willingness to manage exposure risk by adopting effective strategies with desired features.

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Jackie D. Zehr, Jessa M. Buchman-Pearle, Tyson A.C. Beach, Chad E. Gooyers, and Jack P. Callaghan

. Therefore, the study findings suggest that movement speed and frequency (especially via control of action times) could be used as part of a load management strategy during metabolic conditioning programs. Acknowledgments The authors wish to acknowledge the financial support received from the Natural

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Jennifer L. Roney, Melissa L. Yamashiro, and Charlie A. Hicks-Little

Edited by Joe J. Piccininni

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Shaun M. Anderson and Matthew M. Martin

MLB faces in getting African Americans interested and involved with the game of baseball. Specifically, we examined MLB’s social-outreach programs as a social-responsibility and relationship-management strategy using corporate social responsibility (CSR) and relationship-management theory (RMT

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Brian A. Turner

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Michelle L. Weber, Kelsey J. Picha, and Tamara C. Valovich McLeod

Calcaneal apophysitis, or Sever's disease, is common among physically active youth between the ages of 8-15. This condition is related to skeletal growth during maturation and relief often comes once growth is complete. However, it is not feasible to limit participation in physical activity until growth ceases; therefore, it is important to determine effective interventions to regulate pain while continuing participation. A search of the literature yielded nine studies that met the inclusion criteria and were included for data analysis. Within these publications, many treatment methods were suggested, including nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), taping, orthoses, heel lifts, stretching, activity modification, and ice. However, few of the treatment options were compared with a control group. Analysis revealed that clinicians should provide treatments with caution when treating patients suffering from Sever's disease, understanding that strong evidence is not supportive of one treatment option alone. Data are limited for individual treatments related to calcaneal apophysitis and more research in this area is warranted. Clinicians should work with patients on an individual basis to determine if one form of treatment provides a reduction of pain and allows that patient to continue with activity.