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Scott A. Conger and David R. Bassett Jr.

The purpose of this study was to develop a compendium of wheelchair-related physical activities. To accomplish this, we conducted a systematic review of the published energy costs of activities performed by individuals who use wheelchairs. A total of 266 studies were identified by a literature search using relevant keywords. Inclusion criteria were studies utilizing individuals who routinely use a manual wheelchair, indirect calorimetry as the criterion measurement, energy expenditure expressed as METs or VO2, and physical activities typical of wheelchair users. Eleven studies met the inclusion criteria. A total of 63 different wheelchair activities were identified with energy expenditure values ranging from 0.8 to 12.5 kcal·kg-1·hr-1. The energy requirements for some activities differed between individuals who use wheelchairs and those who do not. The compendium of wheelchair-related activities can be used to enhance scoring of physical activity surveys and to promote the benefits of activity in this population.

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Kyeongtak Song, Kyle B. Kosik, Phillip A. Gribble, and Erik A. Wikstrom

a vital element of the infrastructure needed to evaluate the efficacy of common sport rehabilitation interventions at mitigating the progression of ankle posttraumatic osteoarthritis following ligamentous injury. Typical compositional score (eg, T1ρ) acquisition is done by manually segmenting select

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Julie K. Black, Anna C. Whittaker, and George M. Balanos

 al., 2015 ). Sleep loss owing to OSA becomes a real problem in the workplace in terms of production and even health and safety ( Gaultney & Collins-McNeil, 2009 ). This is particularly true of older workers in manual occupations, where non-health-related outcomes of OSA such as difficulty in staying awake

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Joy Khayat, Stéphane Champely, Ahmad Diab, Ahmad Rifai Sarraj, and Patrick Fargier

(notably due to the earth gravity) because they might be embodied from a culturally shaped experience of the physical space (e.g.,  Fischer, 2018 ; Fischer & Shaki, 2018 ). This might explain the positive influence of some board games, which require manual moves on a checkerboard, upon the numerical

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William E. Prentice

Various techniques of manual therapy are available to the sports therapist supervising a rehabilitation program. Joint mobilization and proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF) techniques can be effectively used in rehabilitation of the injured knee for achieving normal joint range of motion and for strengthening the weak components of a movement pattern. Joint mobilization is used to restore normal accessory motion to the joint. The PNF strengthening techniques are used for improving normal physiological motion. These manual therapy techniques allow the sports therapist to concentrate on the rotational component of motion at the knee joint, which is often neglected in rehabilitation programs.

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Nathálya Gardênia de Holanda Marinho Nogueira, Bárbara de Paula Ferreira, Fernanda Veruska Narciso, Juliana Otoni Parma, Sara Edith Souza de Assis Leão, Guilherme Menezes Lage, and Lidiane Aparecida Fernandes

& Roy, 2005 ; Bryden, Roy, Rohr, & Egilo, 2007 ; Nogueira et al., 2019 ). This task is widely used to assess manual dexterity ( Albuquerque et al., 2017 ; Lage et al., 2008 , Nogueira et al., 2019 ; Salvador et al., 2017 ), because it makes use of movements of different levels of difficulty. Under

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Bridget M. Walsh, Katherine A. Bain, Phillip A. Gribble, and Matthew C. Hoch

rehabilitation strategies that improve outcomes in this patient population. Manual therapy techniques are often used to improve pain, range of motion, and tissue extensibility. For these reasons, manual therapy interventions are commonly implemented for patients with CAI. There is evidence to suggest the use of

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Carl Gabbard

With studies of motor behavior that feature manual control, it is suggested that the methodology used to select subjects in reference to handedness be reviewed. This suggestion is in view of the recommendation that simply asking subjects to identify their writing hand is inadequate to define handedness. Complementing this are recent findings in neuroscience indicating differences, at times significant, in information-processing behavior based on handedness classification. A brief review of recently published studies in two prominent outlets for motor behavior research confirms that most reports provide minimal (and sometimes no) information regarding handedness and the method used for assessment. Recommendations for addressing the problem include using an acceptable preference inventory, selecting only those subjects with strong lateral characteristics, and briefly describing the methodology used for the reviewing audience.

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William S. Quillen, John S. Halle, and Leon H. Rouillier

The sports therapist or athletic trainer will frequently encounter individuals who have difficulty regaining normal shoulder joint motion following injury. This tends to occur in spite of the recent advances in arthroscopic surgical techniques, use of constant passive motion (CPM) devices, and sophisticated functional postoperative rehabilitative regimens. A typical approach to the restricted shoulder involves manual therapy techniques. This paper will review the basic physiological and therapeutic principles of mobilization, a primary manual therapy technique. Mobilization procedures are illustrated for the most commonly encountered shoulder restrictions.

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Stefan C. Garcia, Jeffrey J. Dueweke, and Christopher L. Mendias

Context: Manual isometric muscle testing is a common clinical technique used to assess muscle strength. To provide the most accurate data for the test, the muscle being assessed should be at a length in which it produces maximum force. However, there is tremendous variability in the recommended positions and joint angles used to conduct these tests, with few apparent objective data used to position the joint such that muscle-force production is greatest. Objective: To use validated anatomically and biomechanically based musculoskeletal models to identify the optimal joint positions in which to perform manual isometric testing. Design: In silico analysis. Main outcome measure: The joint position which produces maximum muscle force for 49 major limb and trunk muscles. Results: The optimal joint position for performing a manual isometric test was determined. Conclusion: Using objective anatomical models that take into account the force-length properties of muscles, the authors identified joint positions in which net muscle-force production was predicted to be maximal. This data can help health care providers to better assess muscle function when manual isometric strength tests are performed.