, movement quality is better assessed over an entire cycle. One method for comparing coordination over an entire movement sequence is using statistical parametric mapping (SPM). 12 – 14 SPM is based on random field theory and calculates a critical threshold for each test, taking into account both the
Cherice N. Hughes-Oliver, Kathryn A. Harrison, D.S. Blaise Williams III and Robin M. Queen
Gary L. Harrelson
Column-editor : Malissa Martin
Brian J. Souza
Enhancing translational research in kinesiology requires utilizing diverse research methods. Concept mapping (CM), an applied, participatory research method, brings together stakeholders to address problems. CM involves preparing a project, generating answers to a problem, then structuring, rating, analyzing, representing, and interpreting the data. The results are visual depictions of the stakeholders’ collective thinking about a problem that help facilitate decision-making. In this paper, I describe CM, review CM physical activity projects, discuss opportunities for CM in kinesiology, and detail the limitations of CM. Professionals from the kinesiology subdisciplines can implement CM to facilitate collaboration and generate real-world solutions to real-world problems.
Luke E. Patrick and David A. Dzewaltowski
Research on older adult physical activity promotion has lacked methods to measure older adults’ physical activity perceptions and preferences. This article describes perceptual and preference-mapping marketing techniques for investigating perceived features in physical activities. Using these techniques, investigators can represent the dimensions in which older adults perceive physical activity modes, label them, and consider individual differences. In this study, older adults compared 13 physical activities and ranked them by preference. A 4-dimensional space satisfactorily represented perceptions, and a 3-dimensional space, preferences. Physical activity perceptions varied along orthogonal dimensions of health affordance. intensity, social nature, and competitive nature. Categories of preference were revealed as dimensions relating to noncompetitive/self-efficacy attributes, intensity, and gender practices. The authors conclude that older adults’ physical activity preferences and perceptions can be represented by multiattribute dimensional spaces. Future research should employ these scaling techniques to describe relationships between older adults and multiattribute physical activities and determine how they influence perceptions, preferences, and physical activity patterns.
Kristin L. Wiginton and Deborah Rhea
The incidence of eating disorders among female athletes continues to increase, presenting intervention challenges to athletic trainers. Additionally, a number of female athletes have disordered eating behaviors that do not yet constitute an eating disorder diagnosis, but have similar characteristics to those athletes diagonised with eating disorders. However, each athlete exhibits individual mental representations of disordered eating and the impact of those representations on important aspects of her life. The athletic trainer has the potential to offer comprehensive preventive education when all aspects of the athlete’s own understanding of disordered eating are assessed. Cognitive mapping is an assessment technique that can be used in addition to other preventive practices and can be useful in determining an athlete’s current mental representations of disordered eating.
Kathy Babiak, Lucie Thibault and Annick Willem
, we use the encompassing term IOR to reference the array of forms of interactions identified previously. Mapping the Terrain There have been some efforts by scholars to categorize and review the IOR research in different disciplinary areas and fields; however, these have been narrowly focused on
Matthew Heath and David A. Westwood
We investigated whether a representation of a visual target can be stored in memory and used to support the online control of reaching movements. To distinguish between the use of a stored target representation for movement planning versus online control, we employed a novel movement environment in which participants could not fully plan their action in advance of movement initiation; that is, the spatial mapping between the movement of a computer mouse and the on-screen movement of a cursor was randomly varied from trial to trial. As such, participants were required to use online control to reach the target position. Reaches were examined in full-vision and three memory-dependent conditions (0, 2, and 5 s of delay). Absolute constant error did not accumulate between full-vision and brief delay trials (i.e., the 0-s delay), suggesting a stored representation of the visual target can be used for online control of reaching given a sufficiently brief delay interval. Longer delay trials (2 and 5 s) were less accurate and more variable than brief delay trials; however, the residual accuracy of these memory-dependent actions suggests that the motor system may have access to a stored representation of the visual target for online control processes for upwards of 5 s following target occlusion.
Mary G. McDonald
This introductory essay maps a context from which to understand the explosion in the analysis of whiteness, white identities and white privilege in the 1990s and 2000s. The current proliferation—including this special issue devoted to the study of whiteness and sport—is not a new phenomenon because people of color have long critiqued and challenged the mythologies perpetuating racism and white supremacy. Contemporary interdisciplinary scholarship works within and against this legacy suggesting that the articles in this special issue constitute an epistemologically divided knowledge project that is further implicated in contemporary power relations, racial performances, and struggles over meaning.
Weimo Zhu, Zorica Nedovic-Budic, Robert B. Olshansky, Jed Marti, Yong Gao, Youngsik Park, Edward McAuley and Wojciech Chodzko-Zajko
To introduce Agent-Based Model (ABM) to physical activity (PA) research and, using data from a study of neighborhood walkability and walking behavior, to illustrate parameters for an ABM of walking behavior.
The concept, brief history, mechanism, major components, key steps, advantages, and limitations of ABM were first introduced. For illustration, 10 participants (age in years: mean = 68, SD = 8) were recruited from a walkable and a nonwalkable neighborhood. They wore AMP 331 triaxial accelerometers and GeoLogger GPA tracking devices for 21 days. Data were analyzed using conventional statistics and highresolution geographic image analysis, which focused on a) path length, b) path duration, c) number of GPS reporting points, and d) interaction between distances and time.
Average steps by subjects ranged from 1810−10,453 steps per day (mean = 6899, SD = 3823). No statistical difference in walking behavior was found between neighborhoods (Walkable = 6710 ± 2781, Nonwalkable = 7096 ± 4674). Three environment parameters (ie, sidewalk, crosswalk, and path) were identified for future ABM simulation.
ABM should provide a better understanding of PA behavior’s interaction with the environment, as illustrated using a real-life example. PA field should take advantage of ABM in future research.
Dori E. Rosenberg, Jacqueline Kerr, James F. Sallis, Gregory J. Norman, Karen Calfas and Kevin Patrick
The authors tested the feasibility and acceptability, and explored the outcomes, of 2 walking interventions based on ecological models among older adults living in retirement communities. An enhanced intervention (EI) was compared with a standard walking intervention (SI) among residents in 4 retirement facilities (N = 87 at baseline; mean age = 84.1 yr). All participants received a walking intervention including pedometers, printed materials, and biweekly group sessions. EI participants also received phone counseling and environmental-awareness components. Measures included pedometer step counts, activities of daily living, environment-related variables, physical function, depression, cognitive function, satisfaction, and adherence. Results indicated improvements among the total sample for step counts, neighborhood barriers, cognitive function, and satisfaction with walking opportunities. Satisfaction and adherence were high. Both walking interventions were feasible to implement among facility-dwelling older adults. Future studies can build on this multilevel approach.