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Mark Loftin, Melinda Sothern, Georgianna Tuuri, Connie Tompkins, Cathie Koss, and Marc Bonis


The aim of this investigation was to compare gender differences in physiologic and perceptual responses during a 1-h run at recent marathon pace and running economy at three speeds in recreational marathon runners.


In a counterbalanced design, 10 men and 10 women completed a 1-h treadmill run and a running economy test. Treadmill speed for the 1-h run ranged from 141 to 241 m·min−1 and 134, 168, and 188 m·min−1 for running economy. Physiologic parameters (oxygen uptake, carbon dioxide production, pulmonary ventilation, and heart rate) and perceived exertion were measured. Repeated-measures ANOVA was used to compare any gender differences (P < .05) during the 1-h run and a two-way ANOVA was used to compare running economy. With this sample, estimated marathon energy expenditure, body composition, and maximal physiologic function was reported.1


With the exception of an allometric expression of VO2 (mL·min−1·kg BW−0.75), similar gender physiologic and perceptual responses were found during the 1-h run. Although not significant, the females exercised at a higher percent VO2max (8% to 9%) during the run. Similar gender differences were also noted during the running economy tests.


Although the male runners completed a recent marathon significantly faster than the females, similar gender physiologic and perceptual responses were generally found during the 1-h treadmill run and the running economy tests.

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Louise M. Burke, Asker E. Jeukendrup, Andrew M. Jones, and Martin Mooses

The International Association of Athletics Federations recognizes various distance events, with current World Championship and Olympic Games hosting the 10,000-m track event and road marathon (42.2 km) in running and 20 and 50-km events in race walking. In addition, there are separate International

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Tyler J. Noble and Robert F. Chapman

African marathoners have dominated their non-African counterparts in recent years, in terms of both performance times and head-to-head competition. For example, the men’s marathon world record has fallen nearly 2.5 minutes since 2003 across 6 record-breaking performances, all by athletes with

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Pantelis T. Nikolaidis, Stefania Di Gangi, and Beat Knechtle

Marathon running maintains a high level of popularity. However, more people run a half-marathon than a marathon in the United States. In 2016, a total of 1,900,000 runners finished a half-marathon, which is slightly fewer than the 1,986,600 finishers in 2015 and the record of more than 2

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Derek Breen, Michelle Norris, Robin Healy, and Ross Anderson

event, 2 , 3 activity type, 4 course geography, 4 ambient temperature, 5 and altitude. 1 The use of pacing strategies has been investigated in various activities such as running, 6 – 10 racewalking, 11 cycling, 12 , 13 speed skating, 14 rowing, 15 , 16 and triathlon. 17 In marathon running

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Beat Knechtle

Ultramarathon running is increasingly popular. An ultramarathon is defined as a running event involving distances longer than the length of a traditional marathon of 42.195 km. In ultramarathon races, ~80% of the finishers are men. Ultramarathoners are typically ~45 y old and achieve their fastest running times between 30 and 49 y for men, and between 30 and 54 y for women. Most probably, ultrarunners start with a marathon before competing in an ultramarathon. In ultramarathoners, the number of previously completed marathons is significantly higher than the number of completed marathons in marathoners. However, recreational marathoners have a faster personal-best marathon time than ultramarathoners. Successful ultramarathoners have 7.6 ± 6.3 y of experience in ultrarunning. Ultramarathoners complete more running kilometers in training than marathoners do, but they run more slowly during training than marathoners. To summarize, ultramarathoners are master runners, have a broad experience in running, and prepare differently for an ultramarathon than marathoners do. However, it is not known what motivates male ultramarathoners and where ultramarathoners mainly originate. Future studies need to investigate the motivation of male ultramarathoners, where the best ultramarathoners originate, and whether they prepare by competing in marathons before entering ultramarathons.

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Alison Keogh, Barry Smyth, Brian Caulfield, Aonghus Lawlor, Jakim Berndsen, and Cailbhe Doherty

for the 2.1 million people who run the marathon footrace each year, 1 a figure that has grown exponentially in the last 50 years. 2 The majority of this growth has come from an increase in nonelite recreational runners who participate in the marathon for a variety of reasons including health

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Jonatan R. Ruiz, Carmen Fiuza-Luces, Nuria Garatachea, and Alejandro Lucia

For centuries, the general consensus has been that vigorous, competitive exercise was harmful and shortened life expectancy. Recent data from prospective cohort studies conducted on marathon runners, professional cyclists, and Olympic athletes indicate, however, that regular intense endurance-exercise training has protective benefits against cardiovascular disease and premature death. There are still important questions to be answered, such as what is the optimal dose, in terms of both duration and intensity of training or competition, beyond which the health benefits of regular exercise stabilize or might even potentially disappear.

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Michael Clemons and Austin C. Bogina

When Katherine Switzer snuck into the Boston Marathon in 1967, she ignited a running world revolution. Marathoning historically was a man’s sport, with feats of strength thought to be above and beyond the capabilities of women, who many believed were too fragile to compete ( Burns, 2017

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Amanda L. Zaleski, Linda S. Pescatello, Kevin D. Ballard, Gregory A. Panza, William Adams, Yuri Hosokawa, Paul D. Thompson, and Beth A. Taylor

The benefits of regular sustained aerobic exercise are indisputable; however, extreme endurance events, such as a marathon foot race (42.2 km), can be associated with marked muscle damage, inflammation, and injury. 1 – 3 Compression socks have become increasingly popular to wear during and