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Mark Loftin, Melinda Sothern, Georgianna Tuuri, Connie Tompkins, Cathie Koss, and Marc Bonis

Purpose:

The aim of this investigation was to compare gender differences in physiologic and perceptual responses during a 1-h run at recent marathon pace and running economy at three speeds in recreational marathon runners.

Methods:

In a counterbalanced design, 10 men and 10 women completed a 1-h treadmill run and a running economy test. Treadmill speed for the 1-h run ranged from 141 to 241 m·min−1 and 134, 168, and 188 m·min−1 for running economy. Physiologic parameters (oxygen uptake, carbon dioxide production, pulmonary ventilation, and heart rate) and perceived exertion were measured. Repeated-measures ANOVA was used to compare any gender differences (P < .05) during the 1-h run and a two-way ANOVA was used to compare running economy. With this sample, estimated marathon energy expenditure, body composition, and maximal physiologic function was reported.1

Results:

With the exception of an allometric expression of VO2 (mL·min−1·kg BW−0.75), similar gender physiologic and perceptual responses were found during the 1-h run. Although not significant, the females exercised at a higher percent VO2max (8% to 9%) during the run. Similar gender differences were also noted during the running economy tests.

Conclusions:

Although the male runners completed a recent marathon significantly faster than the females, similar gender physiologic and perceptual responses were generally found during the 1-h treadmill run and the running economy tests.

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Tyler J. Noble and Robert F. Chapman

African marathoners have dominated their non-African counterparts in recent years, in terms of both performance times and head-to-head competition. For example, the men’s marathon world record has fallen nearly 2.5 minutes since 2003 across 6 record-breaking performances, all by athletes with

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Louise M. Burke, Asker E. Jeukendrup, Andrew M. Jones, and Martin Mooses

The International Association of Athletics Federations recognizes various distance events, with current World Championship and Olympic Games hosting the 10,000-m track event and road marathon (42.2 km) in running and 20 and 50-km events in race walking. In addition, there are separate International

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Pantelis T. Nikolaidis, Stefania Di Gangi, and Beat Knechtle

Marathon running maintains a high level of popularity. However, more people run a half-marathon than a marathon in the United States. In 2016, a total of 1,900,000 runners finished a half-marathon, which is slightly fewer than the 1,986,600 finishers in 2015 and the record of more than 2

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Derek Breen, Michelle Norris, Robin Healy, and Ross Anderson

event, 2 , 3 activity type, 4 course geography, 4 ambient temperature, 5 and altitude. 1 The use of pacing strategies has been investigated in various activities such as running, 6 – 10 racewalking, 11 cycling, 12 , 13 speed skating, 14 rowing, 15 , 16 and triathlon. 17 In marathon running

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Alison Keogh, Barry Smyth, Brian Caulfield, Aonghus Lawlor, Jakim Berndsen, and Cailbhe Doherty

for the 2.1 million people who run the marathon footrace each year, 1 a figure that has grown exponentially in the last 50 years. 2 The majority of this growth has come from an increase in nonelite recreational runners who participate in the marathon for a variety of reasons including health

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Beat Knechtle

Ultramarathon running is increasingly popular. An ultramarathon is defined as a running event involving distances longer than the length of a traditional marathon of 42.195 km. In ultramarathon races, ~80% of the finishers are men. Ultramarathoners are typically ~45 y old and achieve their fastest running times between 30 and 49 y for men, and between 30 and 54 y for women. Most probably, ultrarunners start with a marathon before competing in an ultramarathon. In ultramarathoners, the number of previously completed marathons is significantly higher than the number of completed marathons in marathoners. However, recreational marathoners have a faster personal-best marathon time than ultramarathoners. Successful ultramarathoners have 7.6 ± 6.3 y of experience in ultrarunning. Ultramarathoners complete more running kilometers in training than marathoners do, but they run more slowly during training than marathoners. To summarize, ultramarathoners are master runners, have a broad experience in running, and prepare differently for an ultramarathon than marathoners do. However, it is not known what motivates male ultramarathoners and where ultramarathoners mainly originate. Future studies need to investigate the motivation of male ultramarathoners, where the best ultramarathoners originate, and whether they prepare by competing in marathons before entering ultramarathons.

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Patrick B. Wilson, Stacy J. Ingraham, Chris Lundstrom, and Gregory Rhodes

Background:

The effects of dietary factors such as carbohydrate (CHO) on endurance-running performance have been extensively studied under laboratory-based and simulated field conditions. Evidence from “reallife” events, however, is poorly characterized. The purpose of this observational study was to examine the associations between prerace and in-race nutrition tendencies and performance in a sample of novice marathoners.

Methods:

Forty-six college students (36 women and 10 men) age 21.3 ± 3.3 yr recorded diet for 3 d before, the morning of, and during a 26.2-mile marathon. Anthropometric, physiological, and performance measurements were assessed before the marathon so the associations between diet and marathon time could be included as part of a stepwise-regression model.

Results:

Mean marathon time was 266 ± 42 min. A premarathon 2-mile time trial explained 73% of the variability in marathon time (adjusted R 2 = .73, p < .001). Day-before + morning-of CHO (DBMC) was the only other significant predictor of marathon time, explaining an additional 4% of the variability in marathon time (adjusted R 2 = .77, p = .006). Other factors such as age, body-mass index, gender, day-before + morning-of energy, and in-race CHO were not significant independent predictors of marathon time.

Conclusions:

In this sample of primarily novice marathoners, DBMC intake was associated with faster marathon time, independent of other known predictors. These results suggest that novice and recreational marathoners should consider consuming a moderate to high amount of CHO in the 24–36 hr before a marathon.

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Amanda L. Zaleski, Linda S. Pescatello, Kevin D. Ballard, Gregory A. Panza, William Adams, Yuri Hosokawa, Paul D. Thompson, and Beth A. Taylor

The benefits of regular sustained aerobic exercise are indisputable; however, extreme endurance events, such as a marathon foot race (42.2 km), can be associated with marked muscle damage, inflammation, and injury. 1 – 3 Compression socks have become increasingly popular to wear during and

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M. Greenhall, R.S. Taipale, J.K. Ihalainen, and A.C. Hackney

research controls and constraints utilized in such studies. To this end, we choose an alternative approach to examine what is the potential performance (marathon completion time) impact of these natural SSH changes during the MC in exercise settings outside of the laboratory in women who participate