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Steven Paul Coen and Benjamin M. Ogles

Several aspects of obligatory running are examined with particular emphasis on the anorexia analogue hypothesis. The psychometric characteristics of the Obligatory Exercise Questionnaire were examined in a preliminary study. The OEQ is unrelated to socially desirable responding and has adequate reliability and validity. Data were collected from a second sample to identify obligatory and nonobligatory runners. Validation of the obligatory construct is examined by comparing demographic and training differences between obligatory and nonobligatory runners. Obligatory runners train more miles, days, and hours per week; have faster finishing times; are more likely to continue running when injured; and report feeling higher levels of anxiety when not running. The anorexia analogue hypothesis is examined by comparing the personality characteristics of obligatory and nonobligatory male marathon runners. Obligatory and nonobligatory runners were not significantly different on measures of identity diffusion or trait anger. They were significantly different on measures of perfectionism and trait anxiety.

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Tyler J. Noble and Robert F. Chapman

African marathoners have dominated their non-African counterparts in recent years, in terms of both performance times and head-to-head competition. For example, the men’s marathon world record has fallen nearly 2.5 minutes since 2003 across 6 record-breaking performances, all by athletes with

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Pantelis T. Nikolaidis, Stefania Di Gangi and Beat Knechtle

Marathon running maintains a high level of popularity. However, more people run a half-marathon than a marathon in the United States. In 2016, a total of 1,900,000 runners finished a half-marathon, which is slightly fewer than the 1,986,600 finishers in 2015 and the record of more than 2

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Derek Breen, Michelle Norris, Robin Healy and Ross Anderson

event, 2 , 3 activity type, 4 course geography, 4 ambient temperature, 5 and altitude. 1 The use of pacing strategies has been investigated in various activities such as running, 6 – 10 racewalking, 11 cycling, 12 , 13 speed skating, 14 rowing, 15 , 16 and triathlon. 17 In marathon running

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Alison Keogh, Barry Smyth, Brian Caulfield, Aonghus Lawlor, Jakim Berndsen and Cailbhe Doherty

for the 2.1 million people who run the marathon footrace each year, 1 a figure that has grown exponentially in the last 50 years. 2 The majority of this growth has come from an increase in nonelite recreational runners who participate in the marathon for a variety of reasons including health

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Patrick B. Wilson, Stacy J. Ingraham, Chris Lundstrom and Gregory Rhodes


The effects of dietary factors such as carbohydrate (CHO) on endurance-running performance have been extensively studied under laboratory-based and simulated field conditions. Evidence from “reallife” events, however, is poorly characterized. The purpose of this observational study was to examine the associations between prerace and in-race nutrition tendencies and performance in a sample of novice marathoners.


Forty-six college students (36 women and 10 men) age 21.3 ± 3.3 yr recorded diet for 3 d before, the morning of, and during a 26.2-mile marathon. Anthropometric, physiological, and performance measurements were assessed before the marathon so the associations between diet and marathon time could be included as part of a stepwise-regression model.


Mean marathon time was 266 ± 42 min. A premarathon 2-mile time trial explained 73% of the variability in marathon time (adjusted R 2 = .73, p < .001). Day-before + morning-of CHO (DBMC) was the only other significant predictor of marathon time, explaining an additional 4% of the variability in marathon time (adjusted R 2 = .77, p = .006). Other factors such as age, body-mass index, gender, day-before + morning-of energy, and in-race CHO were not significant independent predictors of marathon time.


In this sample of primarily novice marathoners, DBMC intake was associated with faster marathon time, independent of other known predictors. These results suggest that novice and recreational marathoners should consider consuming a moderate to high amount of CHO in the 24–36 hr before a marathon.

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Amanda L. Zaleski, Linda S. Pescatello, Kevin D. Ballard, Gregory A. Panza, William Adams, Yuri Hosokawa, Paul D. Thompson and Beth A. Taylor

The benefits of regular sustained aerobic exercise are indisputable; however, extreme endurance events, such as a marathon foot race (42.2 km), can be associated with marked muscle damage, inflammation, and injury. 1 – 3 Compression socks have become increasingly popular to wear during and

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M. Greenhall, R.S. Taipale, J.K. Ihalainen and A.C. Hackney

research controls and constraints utilized in such studies. To this end, we choose an alternative approach to examine what is the potential performance (marathon completion time) impact of these natural SSH changes during the MC in exercise settings outside of the laboratory in women who participate

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Rianne Costello, Mark E.T. Willems, Stephen D. Myers, Fiona Myers, Nathan A. Lewis, Ben J. Lee and Sam D. Blacker

intracellular Ca 2+ homeostasis ( Howatson & van Someren, 2008 ). Half-marathons have been shown to cause EIMD ( Duthie et al., 1990 ; Withee et al., 2017 ). The magnitude of EIMD can be assessed through direct measures of structural damage and force deficits ( Clarkson & Hubal, 2002 ; Warren et al., 1999

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Benjamin H. Nam, Sangback Nam, Adam Love, Takuya Hayakawa, Rachael C. Marshall and Kyung Su Jung

Among ethnic Koreans, marathon running has long been important, as it has promoted national cohesion and Korean identity during tumultuous times. The success of Korean runners in the international sporting arena began at the 1932 Olympic Games in Los Angeles, where, running under the Japanese flag