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Katherine Sveinson and Larena Hoeber

Female sport fan research has been gaining momentum in recent years (e.g., Farrell, Fink, & Fields, 2011; Osborne & Coombs, 2013; Pope, 2011, 2013; Sveinson & Hoeber, 2015). Much of this research focuses on the marginalization that these sport fans experience (e.g., Crawford & Gosling, 2004; Jones, 2008; Sherlock & Elsden, 2000), with little attention given to experiences of empowerment. Therefore, this study sought to explore if female sport fans’ experiences involve marginalization, empowerment, or both and what contributes to these experiences. Multiple individual interviews were conducted with seven highly identified, displaced female sport fans. The data were analyzed through a three-step process involving open, axial, and selective coding (Strauss & Corbin, 1990). The findings demonstrated that the participants experience marginalization based on assumptions that women are inauthentic sport fans. They also felt empowered when they were able to demonstrate legitimacy and authenticity in their fanship.

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Wesley J. Wilson and K. Andrew R. Richards

in PE ( Curtner-Smith, 2017 ; Curtner-Smith, Hastie, & Kinchin, 2008 ), the structure and function of physical education teacher education (PETE) programs ( Stran & Curtner-Smith, 2009 ), and ongoing socialization in the sociopolitical environments of schools that have historically marginalized the

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K. Andrew R. Richards, Karen Lux Gaudreault and Amelia Mays Woods

Marginality is a social phenomenon that refers to being assigned low status or positioning within a social group or culture that is outside of central importance or functioning ( Lux & McCullick, 2011 ). This experience can apply to any individual, group, race, or culture whose qualities and norms

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Kamiel Reid and Christine Dallaire

constructions, the female soccer referee is further marginalized by her gender ( Forbes et al., 2015 ) in a context where sport officials may already have tumultuous relationships and interactions with game-time participants by virtue of being “the referee” ( Forbes & Livingston, 2013 ). Like the female coach

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Barbara Tyree Smith and Grace Goc Karp

This qualitative study explored how students adapt to marginalization in a seventh-grade middle school physical education class in the Pacific North-west. The study’s focus included how marginalized students were excluded within the class and how students, identified as marginalized, adapted to exclusion or temporary acceptance. Marginalized students were those who were unable to be accepted into or remain in a group for a period of time (approximately one week). Data were collected through 60 field observations, over a 14-week time period. Informal and formal interviews were conducted with teachers and students. Three boys and 2 girls were identified as marginalized within the physical education class. Formation of groups and strategies used to exclude marginalized students were found to greatly influence how students became initially marginalized. Once marginalized, students rarely changed their status, although a few were able to use strategies that reduced their status temporarily.

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Maya Maor

center in at least three aspects: the temporary nature of their marginality, given their gradual transition to manhood; their potential to demonstrate the effectiveness and value of their chosen method, through displaying technical expertise over older and/or stronger opponents; and as proof, by virtue

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Nikos L. D. Chatzisarantis, Vassilis Barkoukis, Panagiotis Petridis, Cecilie Thøgersen-Ntoumani, Nikos Ntoumanis, Sandra Gountas, John Gountas, Dimitrios Adam and Martin S. Hagger

Previous research documented that “extremely high prioritization” strategies that involved allocation of all resources for time or energy on pursuing goals related to leisure-time physical activity and none of available resources on competing behavioral goals were optimal in terms of yielding highest levels of participation in physical activities. This study examined whether a “marginally higher prioritization” strategy that involved an intention to invest large but slightly more resources on physical activity than competing behaviors was optimal. In addition, we examined whether linear and quadratic models supported different conclusions about optimal prioritizations strategies. Response surface analyses of a quadratic model revealed that marginally higher prioritization was the most effective strategy. In addition, a linear regression model led us to incorrectly reject a “simultaneous goal pursuit” strategy in favor of an extremely high prioritization strategy. Findings suggest that prioritization strategies that “garner” low opportunity costs are the most optimal.

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Karen Lux and Bryan A. McCullick

The purpose of this study was to analyze how one exceptional elementary physical education teacher navigated her working environment as the teacher of a marginal subject. Structuration Theory (Giddens, 1984) was used to make meaning of how the teacher functioned within her school community allowing her to remain motivated and effective. Data collection involved approximately 300 hr in the school setting involving observation and field notes, interviews, and critical incident (Flanagan, 1954) reports. Data trustworthiness was established through triangulation, member checks and a peer debriefer. Inductive analysis (Huberman & Miles, 1994) of the data generated themes pertaining to Structuration Theory. Analysis revealed that the teacher navigated marginality using four strategies. Implications for teacher preparation are discussed.

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Gina Daddario

This article examines television’s portrayal of female athletes during the 1992 winter Games. Although women are depicted in physically challenging events that defy stereotypical notions of femininity, such as mogul skiing, luge, and the biathlon, rhetorical analysis suggests that the sports media reinforce a masculine sports hegemony through strategies of marginalization. These include the application of condescending descriptors, the use of compensatory rhetoric, the construction of female athletes according to an adolescent ideal, and the presentation of female athletes as driven by cooperation rather than competition.

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Laurene Rehman and Wendy Frisby

Women are responsible for large growth rates in self-employment in many industrialized countries, yet little is known about how they interpret or experience the work they do. In the literature, two competing images of self-employment for women have emerged. With the liberation perspective, self-employment is associated with self-fulfillment, autonomy and control, substantial financial rewards, and increased flexibility in balancing work and family demands. In contrast, the marginality perspective portrays self-employment as a low paying, unstable form of home-based work that combines incompatible work and domestic roles while marginalizing women's work in the economy. The purpose of this study was to examine the work experiences of women consultants in the fitness and sport industry based on the liberation and marginality perspectives of self-employment. Observations of home-based work sites, interviews, and validation focus groups were conducted with 13 women who were currently working or had previously worked as fitness and sport consultants. The results revealed that social context, stages of business development, the personal situations of the women, gender relations and body image issues, and the nature of the work itself influenced whether the women described their experiences as liberating or marginalizing.