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Mohamad Al-Tannir, Samer Kobrosly, Taha Itani, Mariam El-Rajab and Sawsan Tannir


This survey aims to assess the prevalence of physical activity among adult Lebanese, and to report the relationship between sociodemographic variables and physical activity behavior, highlighting the correlates discouraging people to carry out physical activity.


A cross-sectional study using an anonymous self-reported questionnaire was conducted on 346 adults from four Lebanese districts. Demographic characteristics, physical activity, smoking status, alcohol consumption, and medical history were obtained.


Prevalence of physical activity among Lebanese adults was 55.5% (192/346). Age, BMI, marital status, medical history, occupation, educational level, and smoking were significantly associated with physical activity (P < .05). Inactive obese participants were about three times more likely to report hypertension and diabetes than inactive normal weight participants (P = .013). BMI was significantly higher among inactive participants (P = .014).


Physical activity among Lebanese adults was comparable to other populations. Married, non–office workers, and smokers were the main correlates of physical inactivity in Lebanese adulthood.

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Ilona I. McMullan, Brendan P. Bunting, Lee Smith, Ai Koyanagi and Mark A. Tully

requirement giving a total number of metabolic equivalent for task minutes per week (the ratio of the rate of energy expended during an activity to the rate of energy expended at rest). Covariates Demographic measures of age, sex, marital status, employment, and education were self-reported. Health and

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Sofia Wolker Manta, Kelly Samara da Silva, Giovani Firpo Del Duca, Luís Eduardo A. Malheiros, Margarethe Thaisi Garro Knebel, Andressa Ferreira da Silva and Thiago Sousa Matias

involvement in work-related PA, home-based activities, or even greater physical inactivity. 5 , 6 Other sociodemographic characteristics, such as sex, age, education, and marital status, reveal distinct population profiles when PA domains are analyzed in isolation. 6 , 7 For example, younger men and adults

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Judith Godin, Joanna M. Blodgett, Kenneth Rockwood and Olga Theou

each Cox regression by examining graphs of Schoenfeld residuals versus time, and there were no noticeable violations. All models were adjusted for age, sex, education, race, marital status, smoking, body mass index, employment status, and NHANES cycle. We did not using sampling weights in our analyses

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Mark A. Tully, Ilona I. McMullan, Nicole E. Blackburn, Jason J. Wilson, Laura Coll-Planas, Manuela Deidda, Paolo Caserotti, Dietrich Rothenbacher and on behalf of the SITLESS group

/female), marital status (single, married, widowed, or divorced), living arrangements (alone, spouse/partner, son/daughter, other relative, other family, or nonrelatives), employment status (employed or unemployed), body mass index (BMI; underweight, normal weight, overweight, or obese), and education (can read

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P. Chelladurai, Fiona L. Scott and John Haywood-Farmer

This study was undertaken to (a) define and describe the dimensions of fitness service attributes, (b) identify the differences, if any, between groups of subjects (categorized by sex and marital status) in the degree to which the defined attributes influenced their choice of a fitness club, and (c) develop a scale to measure those dimensions. The Scale of Attributes of Fitness Services (SAFS) was developed in three stages: generation of 71 items to measure the six theoretically derived dimensions, a pilot study (n = 178), and a final study (n = 436). In the final version of SAFS, 30 items were retained to measure five dimensions of fitness attributes: professional services, consumer services, peripheral services, facilities and equipment, and secondary services (such as provision of liquor and food). The results of the 2 x 2 x 5 (sex x marital status x dimensions) repeated measures AMOVA showed a significant three-way interaction effect. Despite differences among the four groups in the absolute ratings of the five dimensions, there was an overall consistency in the rating of facilities and equipment as the most influential dimension, and secondary services such as the bar and restaurant as the least influential in the subjects’ decision to join a particular club.

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Karen E. Danylchuk

The prevalence of occupational Stressors in physical education faculties/ departments as a function of sex, age, marital status, family status, years of work experience in higher education, and type of appointment was examined through use of the Stress Diagnostic Survey (Ivancevich & Matteson, 1988a). This multidimensional self-report inventory consists of 17 dimensions, which are further subdivided into organizational Stressors (macrostressors) and individual Stressors (microstressors). The sample reported moderate degrees of stress in comparison to the normative data with the macrostressors being greater sources of stress than the microstressors. Quantitative overload was rated the highest followed by time pressure and rewards. Qualitative overload was rated lowest followed by role ambiguity and role conflict. Sex was associated with the greatest number of Stressors—gender discrimination, quantitative overload, and time pressure. Females perceived these three Stressors to be significantly greater sources of stress than did males.

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Rafer S. Lutz, Marc R. Lochbaum, Beth Lanning, Lucinda G. Stinson and Ronda Brewer

Blue-collar workers (N = 203) from a large food-processing plant in the south-western U.S. completed measures of perceived stress and leisure-time exercise at an initial test session in addition to a 2-month follow-up session. Mean age of the sample participants equaled 43.61 (SD = 9.79), and 69.5% of the sample were male, 71.4% were Caucasian, and 74.9% were married/cohabitating. Structural equation modeling was employed to examine the cross-lagged relationships between perceived stress and leisure-time exercise at these time points, controlling for gender, marital status, age, and yearly household income. Results indicated that a model with a path from perceptions of Time 1 stress to Time 2 exercise frequency was most parsimonious and provided acceptable model ft, suggesting that perceptions of stress are related to reductions in exercise participation in this population. However, there was little support for a relationship between Time 1 exercise participation and Time 2 perceived stress.

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Nina Waaler Loland

The aims of this study were to examine the level of exercise among elderly people with regard to the current Norwegian recommendations, demographic correlates of exercise, and the relationship between exercise and subjective health among elderly men and women. A representative sample of 3,770 Norwegian men and women between 65 and 97 years of age (mean 75 years) completed a questionnaire. The response rate was 83.4%. Results showed that 6% of the participants exercise at the level recommended. The oldest old (>80 years), those who have an illness and use medication, and individuals with lower levels of education and income are the least active segments of the sample. After adjusting for age, marital status, income, and education, results showed that exercise at moderate intensity 3–4 days per week is a significant predictor for positive subjective health.

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Geneviève Rail

This study tested the relationship between perceived role characteristics and role satisfaction among sport executives. It also investigated the relative importance of role characteristics and individual variables in the prediction of role satisfaction. Measures of perceived role characteristics and role satisfaction were obtained through content analysis of interviews with 60 executives involved in Quebec amateur sport federations. Demographic data were gathered by questionnaire. Results indicated positive correlations between perceived role characteristics and role satisfaction. As demonstrated by multiple regression analysis, the selected individual characteristics (age and marital status) were not predictive of role satisfaction. Use of competence, autonomy, role significance, and recognition were found to be the four major determinants of role satisfaction within the voluntary sport associations.