This paper estimates determinants of local market television viewership demand for Major League Soccer (MLS). We examine the effects of team quality and outcome uncertainty and compare our estimates to recent work on the determinants of MLS attendance. We find that local viewership for MLS is not particularly sensitive to uncertainty over game outcomes. However, we do find effects of local team quality and visiting superstars on viewership levels. The results also exhibit evidence of pure substitution effects where viewership transfers to attendance demand as the season progresses, and in which viewership is substituted for attendance in the face of sellouts or poor weather conditions. Team strategy and league policy implications are discussed, along with directions for future research on MLS and local viewership demand.
Hojun Sung, Brian M. Mills and Michael Mondello
Brendan Dwyer, Greg Greenhalgh and Carrie LeCrom
The sport marketplace is overcrowded, and contemporary sport fans have more choices than ever. This makes it difficult for new teams, leagues, and sports to enter the marketplace. In addition, a cultural oligarchy of mainstream sport leagues currently dominates media coverage. As a result, marketers and managers of emerging sports need to understand the attributes for which sport fans connect with entities. Little is known, however, about the differences between fans of niche (emerging or nonmainstream) sports and their mainstream-sport counterparts. Guided by social-identity theory, this study explored the dispositional and behavioral differences between niche- and mainstream-sport fans as a means of psychometric and behavioral segmentation. In particular, an individual’s need for uniqueness and communication behaviors were compared. The results suggest that dispositional differences between the segments were minimal. However, potentially important behavioral differences were uncovered related to how sport fans assimilate with others and advertise their sport affiliations.
Brian M. Mills, Steven Salaga and Scott Tainsky
We add to the recent ticket market literature by using a unique, disaggregated, and proprietary data set of primary market ticket sales transactions from a National Basketball Association team that includes previously unavailable information on date of purchase, customer location, and other consumer demographics. We find that local and out-of-market fans differ in their total purchase amounts, with out-of-market fans spending more than local consumers, on average, and differential spending effects based on the home team win probability. In particular, this differential behavior has important implications for Rottenberg’s uncertainty of outcome hypothesis. We find evidence that interest in visiting team quality dominates interest in perceived contest uncertainty, fitting the reference-dependent preference model in the context of low local team quality. Further, these findings also have important implications related to market segmentation and dynamic ticket pricing in professional sport.
Claire R. Jenkin, Rochelle M. Eime, Hans Westerbeek and Jannique G.Z. van Uffelen
flexibility with traditional sport club scheduling correlates with the ASC market segmentation report ( Australian Sports Commission, 2013 ). The report investigated sport participation for all age groups up to 65 years old, while this research study suggests inflexible scheduling can also affect adults aged
Chad Seifried, Brian Soebbing and Kwame J.A. Agyemang
promotional shortcomings of traditional media” and saw value in being associated with a “socially admired event.” 69 Further, he suggested that companies like the Florida Citrus Commission understood the concept of market segmentation and argued this would be a reason why other companies would target a
.J. ( 2009 ). Market segmentation using perceived constraints . Journal of Park and Recreation Administration, 26 , 35 – 55 . Jun , J. , Kyle , G.T. , & O’Leary , J.T. ( 2008 ). Constraints to art museum attendance . Recreation Administration, 26 , 40 – 61 . Kahn , E.B. , Ramsey , L
Heather Kennedy, Bradley J. Baker, Jeremy S. Jordan and Daniel C. Funk
. Leisure Sciences, 26 ( 1 ), 99 – 118 . doi:10.1080/01490400490272675 10.1080/01490400490272675 Kyle , G.T. , Kerstetter , D.L. , & Guadagnolo , F.B. ( 2002 ). Market segmentation using participant involvement profiles . Journal of Park and Recreation Administration, 20 ( 1 ), 1 – 21 . Laird