and indirect influences on behavioral intention through sport fans’ beliefs about sport team apps serve as benchmark data that will spark future research in this growing area of sport marketing communication. This study found that the TAM and diffusion theory appeared to provide sport scholars a
Yongjae Kim, Soojin Kim and Elizabeth Rogol
Marco Visentin, Daniele Scarpi and Gabriele Pizzi
In this research we develop a comprehensive model of sponsorship effects accounting for behavioral outcomes such as actual purchase, purchase intentions, and word-of-mouth referral intention. We recombine constructs that have been traditionally considered separately into three stages—assessment, elaboration, and behavior. We collect data on actual customers of Nike and Adidas flagship stores during the FIFA World Cup sponsorship. Basing on our results, we provide a consumer-oriented perspective on the role of attitude toward the brand, fit, and involvement with the event in determining customer reaction to sponsorship activities.
Joris Drayer, Brendan Dwyer and Stephen L. Shapiro
The daily fantasy sports (DFS) industry came under heavy criticism for marketing messages focused on the potential for financial gain despite overwhelming evidence that only a small percentage of participants were actually winning money. Under pressure, many DFS websites are shifting their focus toward the activity’s entertainment value. The purpose of the current study is to determine if participants exhibit cognitive and behavioral differences based on their reason for playing. In this study, a sample of DFS participants was segmented based on intrinsic (entertainment) and extrinsic (financial gain) motivation scores. Once separated, cognitive and behavioral contrasts were drawn. The results indicated those individuals motivated by financial gain were more similar to problem gamblers cognitively, yet those intrinsically motivated spent more time and money on the activity. Given the changing legal status of sports betting in the United States, managers and policymakers should carefully consider the risks associated with DFS participation.
Sanghak Lee and Seung-Chang Lee
Sport sponsorship has grown tremendously as the development of sport media, and popular companies such as Coca-Cola, Nike, Toyota, and Samsung have used sport sponsorship as one of their marketing communication channels. In addition, retailers (e.g., Home Depot, Target, Lotte Department Store) have become involved in sponsorship to achieve their marketing communication goals. Although many retail companies have invested in sponsorship, no retailer-specific sponsorship study has been suggested. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to propose a new sponsorship-effect measure using retail service quality (R-SERVQUAL). This study hypothesized that brand recall and team identification would influence R-SERVQUAL. The 2-way ANOVA revealed that the mean scores of R-SERVQUAL were high when sport fans’ brand recall (F = 12.58, p < .001) and team identification (F = 65.88, p < .001) were high, and R-SERVQUAL is suggested as a tool to evaluate the effects of sponsorship communication on the retail industry.
Gashaw Abeza, Norm O’Reilly, Benoit Seguin and Ornella Nzindukiyimana
This study, guided by the relationship marketing theoretical framework, adopted an observational netnography method to investigate professional sport teams’ use of Twitter as a relationship marketing tool. Specifically, the study focused on the three core components of the theoretical framework of relationship marketing: communication, interaction, and value. The observational netnography is based on data gathered from the official Twitter account of 20 professional sport teams in the four major North American leagues over a seven-month period. Results outline seven emergent communication types, six interaction practices, and ten values (co)created by the teams or/and fans. Theoretical and practical implications, as well as impetus for future research, are identified.
Kevin Filo, Daniel C. Funk and Glen Hornby
Sport event tourism is a major component of sport related tourism in many countries. Sport event organizations should strive to develop Internet marketing communication that features event information relevant to potential sport tourists. Using the Psychological Continuum Model (PCM) as its theoretical framework, this article presents two studies examining information requirements for sport event Web sites and evaluating the impact of Web site communications on consumer motivation and attitudes toward the event. Study 1 first used an open-ended response listing exercise to identify 15 information themes that should be accessible on a sport event Web site (N = 54) and then demonstrated in a between-subjects experimental design that providing these information themes increased satisfaction with the Web site (N = 40). Study 2 used a within-subjects experimental design to reveal that provision of these information themes had no impact on travel motives, but did increase favorable attitudes toward a sport event and intention to attend the event (N = 39). This research provides evidence that Web site marketing communication does activate attitude change within consumers, as well as empirical support for attitude change within the PCM framework. Findings highlight the potential strategic use of Web site communication for sport event organizers to enhance consumer attitudes toward the event and increase attendance.
Courtney Hodge, Joseph A. Pederson and Matthew Walker
Given the increasing popularity of social-networking sites, it is extremely important for brand managers involved with Internet-based communication platforms to evaluate whether their communication strategies are positively influencing user attitudes and behaviors toward their brands. This article aims to address this need by investigating how sports fans respond to various marketing communication styles via Facebook posts. Using a case-manipulation design, this study empirically examines the relation among communication styles and individual willingness to engage in 4 common Facebook behaviors (i.e., “comment,” “like,” “share,” and “RSVP”). The results indicate that a personal communication style enhanced individual willingness to “comment” on Facebook posts, while the colorful style enhanced individual willingness to “like” and “RSVP” to Facebook events.
Yukyoum Kim, Hyun-Woo Lee, Marshall J. Magnusen and Minjung Kim
Sponsorship is a significant element of today’s marketing communication. Nevertheless, managers and researchers lack of systematic and integrative understanding of key factors that influence sponsorship outcomes and the contexts in which the relationships between sponsorship effectiveness antecedents and outcomes are stronger or weaker. The authors attempt to address this gap by providing a systematic meta-analytic review of sponsorship effectiveness that incorporates (1) cognitive, affective, and conative consumer-focused sponsorship outcomes; (2) sponsor-related, dyadic, and sponsee-related antecedents to consumer-focused sponsorship outcomes; and (3) sponsorship-related and methodological moderators of the relationships between the three antecedent categories and three outcome categories. Our findings help assess the validity and robustness of the predictive capability of the antecedents, and they also offer a more generalizable and empirically established set of factors that are vital to the achievement of key sponsorship outcomes. Several of our results afford noteworthy implications for improving the effectiveness of sponsorship research and practice.
Brendan Dwyer and Yongjae Kim
The contemporary sport fan has the ability to consume spectator sport through several means including event attendance, television and radio broadcasts, print publications, and Internet applications. Recently, an ancillary sport service, termed fantasy sports, has become one of the most popular activities among sport fans. As a result, the business of fantasy sports is booming. This study examined motivational dimensions underlying fantasy football participation from a Uses and Gratifications perspective. Utilizing Churchill’s (1979) five-step method for developing quality marketing measures, this study identified and validated three motivational dimensions: entertainment/escape, competition, and social interaction. The results suggest a pattern of fantasy football participation that is more purposeful and active than traditional media use. Discussed are the gambling associations, future research opportunities, and suggestions for developing fantasy football participation into a more creative and interactive marketing communication tool.
Robert Copeland, Wendy Frisby and Ron McCarville
Canadian corporations with advertising budgets in excess of $50,000 Cdn that are currently involved in sport sponsorship were contacted through a mailed survey. They were asked about the length and nature of their sport sponsorship involvements, the criteria used to select events, post-event evaluation methods, and reasons for discontinuing past sponsorships. The results revealed that these companies valued sport sponsorship as an important form of marketing communication but supplemented sponsorship initiatives with a variety of other communication measures. None viewed sponsorship as a philanthropic exercise. Respondents repeatedly noted the importance of return on investment in making sponsorship decisions. They valued exclusivity, public awareness, and positive image above other criteria when selecting sponsorship opportunities. Most of the sponsors had discontinued a sponsorship relationship in the past. Furthermore, only one-third of the sponsors felt that the benefits exchanged with sport organizers were fair and equitable.